Thepurpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic.
Theimportance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. Thefindings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the keyconcepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping.
Theconcepts are defined in order to attach a specific meaning to fit with thecontext of this study. Definition of concepts is followed by literature review.Literature review focuses on studies of similar nature and what they haverevealed about illegal dumping.
Thehypothesis of the study reads as “Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste management education,awareness and lack of policy enforcement by relevant authorities”. Theopening statement of national policy on provision of basic refuse removal toindigent households acknowledges the shortcomings in the space of solid servicedelivery. It highlights that that thesystem has had numerous challenges, https://cer.org.
za/wp-. One canattest to this by observations on the increased number of illegal dumping indifferent towns. Theconcept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management. Waste can bedefined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wantsat a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70).
The concept of domestic solidwaste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site withina village where a lot of dumping is happening. There is about three dumpingsites in a radius of a kilometre. The source of waste under concern issuspected to be coming from surrounding households. This narrows the focus to domesticsolid waste management practices. Illegaldumping in this study refers to the dumping of domestic waste or refuse on the site that is not designatedfor this purpose by the local or provincial authority.
The formal definition ofillegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper or illegal manner, where itdoesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage is likely because of theimproper disposal” (http://www.conserve-energy-future.com)Wastemanagement, at a broader level falls within the literature of sustainabledevelopment. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was firstregistered as a global challenge in 1972 at the United Nations Conference onthe Human Environment held in Stockholm, (http://www.conserve-energy-future.
com). One ofthe actions from the conference was the adoption of the declaration on humanenvironment. The declaration identified keyprinciples that are critical to the human environment e.g. the second principlespeaks about the natural resources (air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise thatthey must be well managed, (http://www.
un-documents.net/aconf48-14r1.pdf.)whereas principle number six and seven speak on pollution.
The twoprinciples give caution about man-made pollution on the oceans/marine resources and otherforms of life. The study of illegal dumping practices can be described as formof environmental pollution which is directed to land to be precise. According to the Bruntland Commission,sustainable development is defined as ” development that meets the needsof the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meettheir own needs” (http://www.conserve-energy-future.com). The definition ofsustainable development as a concept can be further understood when theelements or aspects of sustainable development are brought to light. Theaspects of sustainable development are social, economic, cultural, political, geographicaland ecological, (http://www.conserve-energy-future.
com). Furthermore,the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability areflagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition ofsustainable development is understood to mean “development that does notuse up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes ornew technology” (http://www.
conserve-energy-future.com). Drawingfrom a study of illegal dumping by Troschinet& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste managementsuccess, particularly sustainablerecycling.
The 12 elements identified byTroshchinet et al (2009:922) are government policy, government finances, wastecharacterization, waste collection and segregation, household education,household economics, Municipal Solid Waste Management administration (MSWM),MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market,technological and human resources, and land availability. The study conductedtouched on elements on government policy, waste collection and householdeducation. Withinthe SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid wastemanagement and the environmental management. The over-arching act will be The environmentalmanagement act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the actexists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose ofthis act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as toprovide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things.
The NationalPolicy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households (BRR),Government Notice 34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference toWaste Act. It states that this act compels municipalities to put in placeIntegrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs). Oneof the key concepts that resulted fromthe over-arching policy document (59 of 2008, Republic of SA) is Sustainablewaste management. This concept is implemented through the development of anIntegrated waste management plan at a local government level. Each municipality is required to have anintegrated waste management plan. The latter consolidates different strategiesof waste management. The strategies of waste management are better defined byhierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made up of four components i.
e. Reduce (minimise the amount of wasteproduced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling (use materials morethan once) therefore concerned with sorting, processing, and transportation ofsolid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufactureor reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired optionfor waste disposal. The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of thewaste management strategies are being employed in the community under study.
The analysis of solidwaste management strategies implemented in the village under concern will bescrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles and concepts of solidwaste management. An example will be the principles outlined in the sustainabledevelopment concept where it is statedthat Sustainable development requires that the generation of waste is avoided,or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used, recycled orrecovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed (https://cer.org.za/wp).
It is for this reason that hierachy of wastemanagement will be used as a theoretical framework for the