The the shortcomings in the space of solid

purpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic. The
importance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. The
findings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the key
concepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. The
concepts are defined in order to attach a specific meaning to fit with the
context of this study. Definition of concepts is followed by literature review.
Literature review focuses on studies of similar nature and what they have
revealed about illegal dumping.

hypothesis of the study reads as ”
Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste management education,
awareness and lack of policy enforcement by relevant authorities”. The
opening statement of national policy on provision of basic refuse removal to
indigent households acknowledges the shortcomings in the space of solid service
delivery. It highlights that  that the
system has had numerous challenges, One can
attest to this by observations on the increased number of illegal dumping in
different towns.

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concept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management. Waste can be
defined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wants
at a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70). The concept of domestic solid
waste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site within
a village where a lot of dumping is happening. There is about three dumping
sites in a radius of a kilometre. The source of waste under concern is
suspected to be coming from surrounding households. This narrows the focus to domestic
solid waste management practices.

dumping in this study refers to the dumping of domestic waste  or refuse on the site that is not designated
for this purpose by the local or provincial authority. The formal definition of
illegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper or illegal manner, where it
doesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage is likely because of the
improper disposal” (

management, at a broader level falls within the literature of sustainable
development. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was first
registered as a global challenge in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on
the Human Environment held in Stockholm, ( One of
the actions from the conference was the adoption of the declaration on human
environment. The declaration  identified key
principles that are critical to the human environment e.g. the second principle
speaks about the natural resources (air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that
they must be well managed,  (
whereas principle number six and seven speak on pollution. The two
principles give caution about man-made pollution  on the oceans/marine resources and other
forms of life. The study of illegal dumping practices can be described as form
of environmental pollution which is directed to land  to be precise.

 According to the Bruntland Commission,
sustainable development is defined as ” development that meets the needs
of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs” ( The definition of
sustainable development as a concept can be further understood when the
elements or aspects of sustainable development are brought to light. The
aspects of sustainable development are  social, economic, cultural, political, geographical
and ecological, (

the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability are
flagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition of
sustainable development is understood to mean “development that does not
use up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes or
new technology” (

from a study of illegal dumping by  Troschinet
& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste management
success,  particularly sustainable
recycling.  The 12 elements identified by
Troshchinet et al (2009:922) are government policy, government finances, waste
characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education,
household economics, Municipal Solid Waste Management administration (MSWM),
MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market,
technological and human resources, and land availability. The study conducted
touched on elements on government policy, waste collection and household

the SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid waste
management and the environmental management.  The over-arching act will be The environmental
management act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the act
exists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose of
this act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as to
provide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The National
Policy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households (BRR),
Government Notice 34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference to
Waste Act. It states that this act compels municipalities to put in place
Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs).

of the key concepts that resulted  from
the over-arching policy document (59 of 2008, Republic of SA) is Sustainable
waste management. This concept is implemented through the development of an
Integrated waste management plan at a local government level.  Each municipality is required to have an
integrated waste management plan. The latter consolidates different strategies
of waste management. The strategies of waste management are better defined by
hierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made up of four components i.e.  Reduce (minimise the amount of waste
produced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling (use materials more
than once) therefore concerned with  sorting, processing, and transportation of
solid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufacture
or reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired option
for waste disposal. The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of the
waste management strategies are being employed in the community under study.

The analysis of solid
waste management strategies implemented in the village under concern will be
scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles and concepts of solid
waste management. An example will be the principles outlined in the sustainable
development  concept where it is stated
that Sustainable development requires that the generation of waste is avoided,
or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used, recycled or
recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed ( It is for this reason that hierachy of waste
management will be used as a theoretical framework for the 


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