Therespiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells removing carbon dioxide,a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. There are threesignificant parts of the respiratory system, the airway, the lungs, and muscle. Theorgans of the respiratory system can be divided functionally into theconducting zone and the respiratory zone. The conducting region is the airway from the nose or mouth down to thebronchioles and is significant site responsible for transporting air and any foreignparticles.
The respiratory area includesthe bronchioles down to the alveoli, where gas exchange takes please via adiffusion process. The respiratorysystem starts at the place where air enters the body through the nose (nasalcavity), this structure provides humans with the sense of smell whilefiltering, warming, and humidifying inhaled air. Air that reaches through the nose travels tothe pharynx or throat, which is the cone-shaped passageway leading to thelarynx which has the voice box and is a hollow tube connected to thewindpipe, After passing through thelarynx, air travels through the trachea, also known as the windpipe. Here theair is cleaned and then moistened before entering the lungs.
The lungs are inthree lobes the right superior, middle and inferior lobe. The left lung isdiminutive and has only two lobes the left superior and inferior lobe bothassociated externally with small tubular. The fresh air then progresses intothe deep tissues of the lungs ultimately reaching the area gas exchanged the centreof the respiratory system. Inhalationis initiated by the contraction of the diaphragm lines the lower part of thethorax, sealing it off air-tight from the abdominal cavity below. Its compression causes muscles in the thoraxto pull the anterior end of each rib in and outwards to enlarge itsvolume.
As a result, the tension insidethe thorax and the lungs decrease relative to the outside atmospheric airpressure. Firstly, air enters the body through the mouth or nose and quickly movesto pharynx or throat. It then passes through the larynx or voice box whichlinks to the trachea that has strong tube c shape that contains rings ofcartilage which prevent it from collapsing, within the lungs the tracheabranches into the left and right bronchus which further divide into smallerbranches called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles in a tiny air sac calledalveoli which inflate during inhalation and deflate during exhalation. Duringinternal swallowing, the back of the tongue that is joined to the top of thelarynx, pushes upward, forcing the epiglottis to close over the glottis,preventing food or foreign objects from entering the larynx. If any items enterthe vocal folds, stimulation of the larynx muscles causes a cough reflex to tryand expel the elements to prevent choking.
Gasexchange is the distribution of oxygen of the lungs to the bloodstream and thereplacement of carbon dioxide of the bloodstream to the lungs. It transpires in the lungs between thealveoli and a system of tiny blood vessels called capillaries which are locatedthe walls of the alveoli where the red blood cells travel through thecapillaries hence making it possible for oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuseor move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygenmolecules attachedto red blood cells which move back to the heart at the equivalent moment, thecarbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are inflated out of the body with thenext exhalation. The gas exchange allows the body to replenish the oxygen andeliminate the carbon dioxide both of which are necessary for survival.
Smokingdamages the, respiratory system. Every time an individual smokes, the toxicgases pass through the lungs then into the bloodstream, where they flow to everyorgan in the body. Cigarette smoke contains the poisoned gases, carbonmonoxide, and nitrogen oxide. All classes of tobacco are hazardous, includingcigar pipes, and smokeless tobacco such as chewing tobacco and snuff. Nicotineis an addictive chemical in tobacco. Smoking affects the two lungs airways,also called bronchial tubes and small air sacs called alveoli. Tiny hair-like known as cilia causing harmfulsubstances to the lungs causing irritates to the bronchial tubes producing themto increase and make mucus.
Therefore, slowing the movement of the cilia as aresult of smoke making mucus to stay in the lungs, whiles sleeping some thecilia recover and start pushing more pollutants and mucus out of thelungs. When woke up the body attempts toexpel this material by coughing repeatedly, the condition known as the smoker’scough. In no time, chronic bronchitis develops as the cilia stop working andthe airways become clogged with mucus.
Breathing can become more difficult,causing the lungs to become more vulnerable to further disease such as chronicbronchitis and emphysema which is collectively called COPDwhich is the gradual loss of the ability to breathe for which there is noantidote.