Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Gregory Ford
Last updated: September 19, 2019
The London of, Newham comprises of the Borough Council of Greater London (see Fig 1 Map below) the site is about five miles from the central City of London and is surrounded by Tower Hamlets also Hackney to the west. ( Figure1 Newham in Greater London ) The East End was a place of economic activity concerned with the processing of raw supplies and manufacturing of goods in factories. This brought about new finance purposes for the British industry in the late 1800s. The East End’s accessibility to the Thame’s dockland areas and it’s being situated on the outskirts of central London made this area the ultimate location for a wide scope of manufacturing and increasing businesses. Some of these were considered high risk and most likely to cause harm, notably since much of the industry was also known as being unhealthy. Unfortunately, these claims became even more concrete when on the 19th of January 1917 fifty tons of TNT blew up in the Brunner Mond & Co in Silvertown.
Unbeknownst to the then owners, the company had started producing ammunition. This had lead to the greatest explosion in London’s history. The loud sound that the explosion made could be heard as far as Southampton and Norwich. In the end, a total of 70,000 buildings were bombed and 73 people were killed. In the 1800s, the introduction of railways from the borough into Essex had a significant impact on the urban development in the borough.
This eventually allowed for the beginnings of new railway lines and stations.In the post-Middle Age period, London expanded quickly and many of Newham’s village settlements also grew as a result. Newham became known as an attractive area for rich Londoners to build large country dwellings. This was due to its urban location and the truth was that it was now easy to travel to and from the inner city. Various of the dwellings have since been destroyed, but they nonetheless illustrate a significant transitional phase for Newham. The archeology of this time has not yet been explored but may have potential.
This potential would imply the study of the current consumer society contrasting with the poorer communities within the city itself. While earlier consideration, that improvement of the railways had changed the quality of the neighborhood and had caused large urban development which eventually pointed to the area being subsumed into London. The Eastern Counties Railway opened in 1839 and a branch route to Silvertown and North Greenwich was added in the 1840s. These railways helped to accelerate the process of developing the industrial growth of the community because the products produced and needed by manufacturers could be easily transported.
In addition to this, goods unloaded at the docks could be easily transported somewhere else throughout the area. This resulted in an industrial growth spurt causing a need for more space with the housing sector for the workers. The progressive growth of Newham’s urban essence generated employment which caused a massive need for housing to provide housing accommodations for the workers and their families. Thus, emerged new areas known as Hallsville, Canning Town, and North Woolwich. It continued to grow and eventually, Custom House, Silvertown, and West Silvertown was also added. Unfortunately, the new housing community lacked the essential water supply and sewerage system needed and so certain diseases such cholera and cowpox thrived in these areas. The large modern developments that took place during the 19th century and the facilities provided for the workers employed at them are a remarkable and distinguishing element of Newham’s history. When these large industrial facilities were constructed they became known as some of the largest and most imposing structures in the world at that time.
The Royal Docks were built in 1855 and 1921 in the Riverside area that has earlier been a marshland until it was claimed back. The marshes by the River Lea had also provided enough room for industry. The London docks (which is surrounded by an envelope of water that lies on both sides of the River Thames) are as old as the city itself. In spite of the fact that their account coincides with the fabrication of the increased growth of trade on the Thames, there is no existing information on how the foundation of Britain’s capital came to be.The River Thames continued traversable and granted power for a group of tidal mills, which before now, were critical to London’s growth in 1066. The London docks for the next seven centuries will continue to be of service to industries such as calico printing, paper making, and sulfur gunpowder production.
Continuously till the 19th century, most of the manufacturers in the area were in or near those western marshes. Throughout the Middle Ages, the millhouses made mostly flour which was often sold to local bakers trading with London. These Stratford bakers from the 14th century are often mentioned. This Royal Victoria Dock remained opened during 1855, it had been the original dock built especially for steam vessels and the first to be planned with straight railway connections facing to the dock.
As H.V.Savitch observes, “The Land on the eastern side of the Thames contains the London Docklands. It stretches for eight square miles and cuts through Inner London.
Two hundred years ago most of this land along the river’s edge was green and not far from farmlands. But the industrial revolution changed it”.(p.223). The Royal Albert Dock signified by the Duke of Connaught during 1880 before its Grand Open and the other two docks were linked by the narrow Passage.
The Albert was equipped with water-powered lifts and a steam pressure System to control the vessels up to twelve thousand tonnes and was in the co-operation by the Great Eastern Railway. Throughout the year from 1886, numerous surrounded docking complexes existed in the Ports of London. Especially, Tilbury Docks, which remained established on the River Thames. There were additional docks essentially such as the Surrey Docks near Rotherhithe, the Royal Albert Dock, the Millwall Docks on the Isle of Dogs, the Royal Victoria Dock, the West and India Docks, and the St. Katherine Docks. This caused a problem because it resulted in an overabundance of docks in the neighbourhood.
This presented rise to financial complications for the dock establishment. The East and West India Docks Company went into receivership in 1886. Low economic statements pointed to a shortage of financing in new facilities and growth in technology, thus the harbour’s departments became more obsolete and useless.(Fig 2The Ports of London)Several of these docks remained among the largest to ever be assembled and were a significant part of London’s foundation at a time when the city was known to have one of the most commanding ports in the world.As Michael Middleton observes, “London was for many years the biggest city in the world.It was the financial centre of the world.
It was the largest manufacturing City in Britain. And it became these things because it was the biggest port” (p53). The sewerage system in Beckton was built during the 1880s so that the sewerage from the rapidly growing London could be treated including storing it before being safely deposited at sea. The sewerage system has proceeded to increase and is now the biggest in the UK and among the biggest in the world. Beckton gasworks, which opened in 1870, was known as one of the biggest in the world and could produce gas for much of London.
By the 1880s, the community had become a major centre of production which attracted personalities from all over Britain to work in the facilities, Beckton Gasworks and docks The Beckton gasworks within the area of Newham would continue on to perform a significant position in the East End manufacturing for past 100 years. Its account also shows how this once blooming manufacturing Community has decreased and switched its focus. Previously the greatest gasworks in Europe, East London’s Beckton gasworks was in management from 1870 until 1969 when it closed down.There existed other notable centres in Newham including the Stratford railway works and the Thames Ironworks on the Limmo Peninsula.
In addition to these sites, there were various factories and wharves situated along the Thames and Lea rivers in development from the 19th century and onwards. The industrial heritage of Newham is therefore impressive and in certain places, of national and international significance. The docks resumed to succeed and deliver new facilities continuously to the end of the 1930s where Britain and the entire world saw the arrival of a new struggle such as the Second World War. Britain claimed war on Germany for the second time on September 3rd, 1939.
The Great War had caused serious consequences for London and its Docklands. In regards to the Port of London, the war had an even more overwhelming result. 30,000 people had died during this time and as well as the industry and the inner city was also damaged.The Royal Docks’ geographical location and the unique aggregation concerning industry made Newham a prime target for Luftwaffe attack throughout the Second World War. The borough was massively attacked during the Second World War, particularly around the docks in the south. This area lost about a quarter of its homes.
Despite the precautions taken with the removal of a huge quantity of people to the countrysides, the organizing of Anderson shelters and gas masks to the citizens of London, and the blackout curfew, the air attacks still laid waste to the capital. One of the worst ones was the Blitz, which London, the East End, and the Docklands were bombarded 57 times one after the other throughout the darkness of September 7, 1940, until its end the mid of May 1941. By the conclusion of it, about 20,000 tons of explosives had landed in London and its Docklands causing severe damage. There remained a series of difficulties that arose after the Second World War that added to the drop of the Docklands area going down. A housing crisis height hit, but the main obstacle was the competition with rival ports and containerization. All these factors served in the downward fall and closing of the docks.The first difficulty with rebuilding the Docklands was that the city had been so severely damaged that it caused a housing shortage.
Thousands of houses had been destroyed by the air raids, as a consequence, London’s residents were in need for new dwelling. This caused a problem of overcrowding.The population declined because numerous of the citizens who had been bombed out or evacuated didn’t return. After the war, rebuilding started on a large scale, including a large amount of council housing by the 1980s, Newham had one of the largest assemblies of tower blocks structures in Britain.As Murray Stewart observes, “The supply function for houseing is influenced heavily by the durability of residential structures and the relative ease with which quality changes in either direction can br incorporated in existing structures”.(P.
135). Newham’s “Ronan Point” exist as an East London towerblock structures with over twenty-two Floors. To improve the way people thought about blocks only lasted two months after it was opened, prior to it fall to pieces on 6th of May 1968 people saw tower structure as the programme to high density Community living but soon afterwards tower blocks started to be seen as rejected. The problem was compounded when councils failed to keep the Building in good condition deal to the to high quality that remain set and instead used them for unwelcome residents as then placed criticism on the poorly assemble structure.As Murray Stewart observes, “At any one time the marginal cost of providing some conventional unit of given quality of housing service during the next accounting unit period from the existing stock of housing is typically considerably less then from a newly built structure.
Further, the difference in expected present value of net returns between an existing structure in tolerably good condition and a comparable new structure almost always favours former -con- siding relative quality of service and its value, the cost of incorporating quality changes , remaining expected lifetime, and expected maintenance cost, and counting acquisition cost as zero for the former” (P.135). Public housing is a well known exception, but of course it is not section of the private market response even an exception , more, its a very small part of new construction .Housing accommodation for lower incoming households are typically made available by concerting dwelling from use by higher incoming for families within the household.
The Ronan Point (Fig 3) was knock down in 1986s and was dismantled piece by piece instead of being blown up it was recognise that Ronan Point had not been constructed suitably and its structural ethics was settlement. (Fig 3 The Ronan Point tower block)From 1910 to 1950 the Royal Docks were almost successful. The docks harbour planning permitted tranship receive change out of the transaction massiveness delivery between shipping ,Railway, to road and lighter transportation, into depots warehouses for further storing . Many of the delivery travel throughout the docks network was from deep sea trading, especially with the British Commonwealth.Which is an intergovernmental establishment of 52 representative states that are mostly former zone of the British Empire.The transportation of goods through the Royal Docks reached its highest point in 1950s and the early 1960s. As a result beyond everything, that containerisation and different technological modify, and a change of direction, in Britain’s Business with trading following The European Union Economic Community congregation, lead the way to a fast decrease As Michael Middleton observes, “Between 1961 and 1977 half a million manufacturing jobs had gone.
Containerisation came, the coastal coal trade ceased, air transport mushroomed. One by one the great docks closed – East India Dock, London Dock, St Katharine’s and in 1970 Surrey Docks. Some 10,000 dock-related jobs went between 1966 and 1976, and another 8,000 in the five years after that.”.(P.55)Through 1978, significant economic troubles that contracted with the upper docks, the Royals, in demanding, ought to bring the Ports of London the government to the edge of bankruptcy. Upon advising the council, about the Port of London the government was advised to develop restructuring plans with the hopes of achieving commercial viability. The Port of London command introduced a proposal known as the Radical Approach.
This proposal aimed to close the upstream docks which were currently suffering from £9m a year at that period and had no way of earning it back. Nevertheless, in the design of a severe result of developing the Basic Approach, an improved plan was put onward which involved additional workers cuts, reducing working methods to improve fertility, and transferring the shipload succeeding controls from the Royal Docks to West India, Millwall Docks, and Tilbury Docks. This occurred favorably recognized by the Government without for the change of delivery managing aside from the Royals, and £35m was present to the Port of London Authority to implement the rest of the plan of action. Additional economic collaboration occurred which gave limited on running the upper docks in working order.The development jobs this created brought in new communities from Asia and the Caribbean, but the overall there was decline in jobs, particularly with the final closing of the Docks in 1975.As H.
V.Savitch observes, “The stock of empty industrial building was at a record high in the 1980s. Parts of Inner London have been especially hard hit by the exodus to the hinterlands. Many of the docks on the East End have closed, leaving behind a depressing sight of boarded up warehouse and broken piers. Between 1971and 1981more than 46 percent of Inner London’s manufacturing jobs disappeared” (p.177).
Section TwoThe loss continued toward the twentieth century and lay-off with unemployment reached an all-time low in the interwar years causing protests and rioting to take place. Various people were relocated throughout the Second World War and the city was seriously bombed.In contempt of extensive rebuilding following the war, the commercial drop remained with the closing of the docks.
This slump the industrial activity has devised many inner boroughs facing severe socio-economic and environmental difficulties. Many of this impoverishment was already occurred related to the problems of hunger.The rebuilding toward Stratford began during the 1960s which brought about the shopping center, London Freight Terminal, and some job for the local people.
East London, like many other inner cities, suffered as a decision of deindustrialization from 1960-1070. This happened because the Docklands area was unable to compete with new container ports before mentioned while the Tilbury and Felixstowe. In the 1990s, a new station, train Station library, theater, and multiplex continued developing.
The borough center had become a brighter more attractive place..As John R.Gold & Margaret M.Gold, “Housing development was alright under way in stratford and in a number of canalised developments prior to the games, so the athlete’s Village (now reamed East Village) represent the first non sports legacy, providing 2,818 new homes, including 1,379 affordable residences, for sale and rent, along with an academy school and polyclinic. However the catchment for these new community facilities was much wider than the local area. Cost and timing has meant the compromises to the original master plan had to be made from the planned four to eights storey blocks to standardised blocks of six to twelve storeys and finally to eight to ten.”(P.
392)Urban Development Corporations (UDC) and also Enterprise Zones (EZ) happened to be two significant public a short regeneration businesses founded in 1981. Both proposed to reconstruct the inner-city Community by assembling new industrial and residential homes near old production, abandoned land or polluted urban (brownfield sites) within the area. The London Docklands Urban Development Corporation (LDDC, 1981) and Enterprise Zone (1982) helped to renew the Docklands area. While the LDDC was finished in 1998, the entire Docklands neighborhood had seen a massive change and improvement.
Its outreach introduced the organization of a secondary economic community and the growth of an improved transport support, including the Docklands Light Railway and the City Airport. However, it faced some criticisms in relation to meeting the requirements of the local people in the Community, particularly in the supplies of affordable accommodations furthermore with suitable employment. Newham got a big facelift by getting to be the home of the main Olympic Games park and stadium. It was known at the time to be one of the poorest areas in London and in the top handful of impoverished communities against the entire country. It had transformed very quickly it was considered a white, working-class dock area in the 1960s to a high rise in unemployment, low skill, semi-derelict area and so it became an active focal point for renewal in the 1990s and 2000s. One of the goals of this change was to create a major transport hub linking Eurostar, Crossrail, and a high-speed route to King’s Cross, all at the Stratford Interchange.Proceeding on the 6 of July 2005, the International Olympic Committee named London as the hostess for the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games in 2012. The recovery of the Lower Lea Valley, a stripped portion of East London, remained a significant character of the London proposal for the games.
Residential renewal possesses an important factor in earlier successful Olympic proposals and in the preparation for other larger sporting performances, such as the Commonwealth Games in Manchester in 2002. It is considered that the very high level of value for the games will set off a confident chain of collective causation, producing enduringly essential living standards to the Community.An environmental transformation also had to take place in the Valley to improve the Water City and extension of the existing waterway channels. They additionally developed a narrow park and environmental passageway along the waterways linking the Lew Valley Regional Park to the Thames and the East London Green Grid.
Environmentally, a lot of the areas in the Olympic Park had been kept as park land and were open to the citizens for use as a picnicking and sports area New developing green areas and wildlife territories were built, including millponds, woodlands, and manufactured otter holes.The stadiums were made of at least 25% recycled materials.The River Lea that flows throughout the Olympic Park was increased as has the nature of its river. Developing green spaces were placed adjacent to the edges of the river.The residential wasteland of the Lower Lea Valley was cleaned up, including soil being cleaned on site.The Olympic Site was built mainly on 560 acreages of brownfield land, the property that had been ignored, unused, and polluted.
The existing centres were thriving, thus providing a strong urban structure that was also supported by a useful transport network. There was a chance for improvement of cohesive neighborhoods and the populations by using the land released from the businesses. This land was used for housing (especially family housing) and was supported by a necessary community, education and health facilities, shops and businesses, and public space and other amenity uses. The essential factor for transformation is given through the potential for change of use of industrial land and its redevelopment for housing.The possibilities for change are currently defined by a representation of key elements, including poor access, local connectivity, contamination, complex land ownership, limited good quality open space, and social infrastructure. Addressing these constraints will require the coordinated efforts of public agencies to address viability and stimulate the private sector to invest in the area.
Intensification of retained industrial land and the progress of new employment areas had the ability to create up to 50,000 new full-time job opportunities and as well as up to 7,000 development jobs between 30,000 and 60,000 volunteer opportunities. These opportunities arose just from receiving the Olympic and Paralympic Games. ConclusionThroughout the 1900s, Stratford continued growing progressively industrialised including a variation of businesses working in the Community. During the 1820s for instance, it became its individual dock and quays and it was also an equally striking transport core point. This was due to its location connecting London to the east of the country.During 1839, Stratford received its individual railroad service and over time a depot that developed powered railway transport that was used for towing trains, coaches, and good wagons. The railway became an important community employer with approximately 2,500 people expected to be working there in the mid-1800s.
This progress would suggest further housing, an improved community infrastructure, and a new borough that would be improved to give accommodation to railway workers. The railway Service locked down in the 1990s and, similar to much of the East End, Stratford was affected by high levels of lay-off rates. The community developed rapidly when it was addressed to the public that the 2012 London Olympics would happen at Stratford in Newham.
The area got a quick boost when this was announced. Olympics Park, brand-new residencies, and the new Westfield shopping complex did much to rebuild the area.Today East London is a Center of renewal with a rising culture.
It is made up of the London Urban areas of Barking,Dagenham and Redbridge, Hackney, Newham, Tower Hamlets and Havering regeneration Waltham Forest.