Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Valerie Cross
Last updated: November 1, 2019
The United Nations Children’s Fund. Pakistan Floods. Early Recovery Framework – OCHA Pakistan, 2012. PDF file.
2.2 Response to date 2.2.1 Government of Pakistan response The Government, under the leadership of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), and enlisting the logistical capacity of the Armed Forces, spearheaded the initial response to the disaster with the deployment of rescue and relief operations. District-level authorities supported by the Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMAs) of Sindh and Balochistan and NDMA initiated an immediate response in the first days of the floods. The Government initial response included search and rescue activities for people trapped by the floods, and relocation of populations living in vulnerable areas where possible. Utilizing the preparations made through the contingency planning process, locations for hosting people who had to leave their homes had been identified, search and rescue capacities reinforced and humanitarian communication systems devised. Mechanisms developed during the contingency planning process were activated to alert the population of potential flooding and thus enable them to move to temporary settlements in advance of the floods.
During the floods and in their immediate aftermath, the Governmentof Pakistan response, through both the NDMA and PDMA, focused on life-saving activities, providing shelter, food and non-food items (NFIs) and addressing hygiene and sanitation constraints for the affected communities. As of 12 December 2011, the NDMA has provided an estimated 125,000 emergency shelters (tents and shelter kits), over 2.42 million food rations, more than 9.5 million water purification tabs and 1 million hygiene and sanitation tablets. Other items distributed include blankets, mosquito nets, water purification units and plastic sheets. The NDMA also established 33 health camps and 22 field mobile health units that treated more than 1.53 million patients.
Mosquito fumigation was also carried out in affected areas. 2.2.
2 Humanitarian community response On 8 September, the Government of Pakistan requested the United Nations for international assistance to respond to the emergency caused by floods in Sindh and Balochistan. In response to 10 the request, the humanitarian community developed a Rapid Response Plan based on the joint rapid needs assessment undertaken on 11 and 12 September. The plan complemented the Government’s provision of relief to affected populations and was launched on 18 September 2011. Through the Cluster approach, UN organizations and NGOs have been providing life-saving emergency assistance to flood-affected communities. Accordingly, the following clusters were activated: Food Security, Health, Shelter/NFI, WASH, and Logistics. Other sectors, Education, Protection, Nutrition and Early Recovery were integrated as part of life-saving interventions into the existing clusters. Kronstadt, K.
Alan, Pervaze A. Sheikh, and Bruce Vaughn. Flooding in Pakistan: Overview and Issues for Congress, 2010. Print. PDF file. Implications of Flooding on Selected Sectors of Pakistan The floods are expected to have a long-term negative effect on the development prospects for Pakistan.
There is considerable damage to infrastructure and agriculture, among other sectors. The United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank are conducting a needs assessment for Pakistan. Initial reports state that the need for recovery and reconstruction could reach $9.
7 billion. This section discusses some potential implications of the flooding on selected sectors in Pakistan including energy and infrastructure, the economy, and security. Implications on Energy and Infrastructure Rebuilding challenges include reconstruction of destroyed or damaged housing and infrastructure, including electrical generation and distribution, roads, bridges, rail lines, levees, dams/barrages, and irrigation works.
Damage estimates include more than 5,000 miles of primary and secondary roads, 400 bridges, 400 miles of railways, 11,000 schools, and 200 health facilities, with damage being particularly severe in northern regions like the Swat Valley.35 The difficulty, time, and expense of rebuilding this lost infrastructure is likely to be substantial. For example, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank jointly estimate that the floods caused $9.7 billion of damages.36 That figure includes damage across several sectors, including loss of physical infrastructure and other economic losses. The full study has not yet been released, but researchers have commented that agriculture and roads were particularly hard hit.
37 Two U.S. university researchers using primarily data on the flood characteristics and pre-flood economic data estimated damages between $5.1 billion and $7.1 billion to building and transportation infrastructure and $2.12 billion in losses from the disruption of trade.38 Implications for Agriculture Agriculture is one of the primary mainstays of Pakistan’s economy. It accounts for approximately 23% of GDP, employs about 43% of the labor force and provides about 60% of the country’s export earnings.
47 Arable crops, livestock, and fishing and forestry represent 65%, 31%, and 4% of Pakistan’s agricultural GDP, respectively. Pakistan typically has two major growing seasons, Rabi (winter crop, spring harvest) and Kharif (summer crop, fall harvest).48 The Kharif crop is also called the summer or monsoon crop because it is grown during the time of the southwest monsoons, which typically occur from July to October. During the Kharif season, agricultural activities take place in rain-fed and irrigated areas. Department for International Development. Pakistan floods newsletter 3-gov.uk, 2010. PDF file.
‘THE WORST COULD BE YET TO COME BUT WE WILL STAND BY PAKISTAN’ UK MINISTERS SEE FLOOD DEVASTATION The Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell and Minister Without Portfolio Baroness Warsi have all recently travelled to Pakistan to see the effects of the devastation. DFID has been leading the UK Government’s response to the worst Monsoon floods in the history of Pakistan. Speaking from Sukkur, South Pakistan, the region now worst affected by the monsoon floods. Nick Clegg Deputy Prime Minister said: “It’s now one month since the monsoon floods started, and the disaster in Pakistan is getting worse.
“The coming days and weeks are critical; millions of people in Punjab and Sindh in the south of Pakistan have lost their homes and are facing hunger and illness unless they get vital help right now. “That’s why the UK will push out more emergency aid over the coming days in what is now the worst affected area of Pakistan, including safe drinking water, toilets, emergency shelter, water pumps, and other lifesaving items.” Targeted aid in Punjab and Sindh includes: 2,330 water pumps/points to provide safe drinking water for hundreds of thousands of people; 1,150 private bathing facilities, benefiting thousands of people particularly women; Emergency shelter kits for around 30,500 families – provide shelter for more than 152,000 people; Hygiene kits for about 75,000 families Chughtai, Shaheen and Cate Heinrich. Pakistan Floods Emergency: Lessons from a continuing crisis, 2012 .PDF file.
KEY STRATEGIC PRIORITIES OF THE EARLY RECOVERY FRAMEWORK Improved access to an essential package of public health services for the affected and returning population with a reasonable degree of contact (above 0.5 New Cases/person/year) between the population in the catchment area and the public health delivery system in each of the priority districts; Conduct Mother and Child Week (MCW) to deliver a package of health information and services to household. Conduct measles campaign to vaccinate 6 months to 13 years children against measles, Provide Vitamin A supplementation to children 6-59 months along with measles campaigns or polio campaigns; Provide cold chain equipment, assist operational cost of vaccine logistics to ensure availability of safe vaccine to children; Essential health system service delivery to the affected population will be through still functional health facilities, and community based health care providers of the Government and civil society organisations, organisation and development of mobile medical teams and ensuring effective referral support through outsourcing the provision of health care to international and national non-governmental organizations that are currently engaged in providing health services in the flood affected districts via the Cluster Coordination Mechanism. Build capacity of civil society and authorities in exposed areas to respond to health and nutrition needs in emergencies; Prevention, control and provision of a public health response to communicable disease outbreaks – priority health interventions need to be directed towards diseases that are endemic and particularly those which can potentially cause excess numbers of mortality and morbidity within a short span of time. A crucial initial step for a public health emergency and early recovery response is to establish adequate disease surveillance systems that take into account the inherent disruption of the public health infrastructure of the affected country and to ensure that affected population have access to information about prevention of key killer diseases; Intuitional capacity building for the provision of specialized health services and medical care for person with disabilities and older persons by training staff on appropriate responses, by providing appropriate drugs, by referring individuals to rehabilitation services and by providing specific equipment. Conclusion The floods are expected to have a long-term negative effect on the development prospects for Pakistan. There is considerable damage to infrastructure and agriculture, among other sectors.
Under the leadership of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), and enlisting the logistical capacity of the Armed Forces, the country responded to the disaster. During the floods and in their immediate aftermath, the Governmentof Pakistan response, through both the NDMA and PDMA, focused on life-saving activities, providing shelter, food and non-food items (NFIs) and addressing hygiene and sanitation constraints for the affected communities