Theatre Test II

Topics: ArtComedy

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Last updated: November 29, 2019

Pixerecourt
French, father of melodrama – intimately involved in staging his works/helped arrange spectacle

August Kotzebue
German playwright of many genres – incorporated melodramatic elements before it was popular (plays had elements later deemed melodramatic), controversial endings because easy/confirming, not as extreme as sturm and drung but endings had commercial success

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Victor Hugo
French, new kind of plays – grotesque/sublime (romantic style), inspires riots with Hernani play, divine/animal in human nature

Alexandre Dumas pere
wrote 3 Musketeers/Count of Monte Cristo, founded Theatre Historique, touring company with Shakespeare plays – no purity of genre in performance

Alexandre Dumas fils
Illegitimate – eventually claimed by father and given money/legitimacy, start writing more thesis plays and has change of perspective

Eugene Scribe
popular well made play author, few scene changes/short time frame/climactic, wrote 300+ plays, piece bien faite

Samuel Coleridge
English, borrows Shlegel’s ideas and moves romanticism to England, idea of ‘organic unity’, ‘willing suspension of disbelief’ – audience participates

John Philip Kemble
Kemble Family – best of classical tradition, best actors in London. John dignified, classical style – gave long articulate speeches to audience, managed Drury and Covet Garden

Sarah Siddons
sister of John Kimble, greater emotional range, stoic, best known for tragedienne of 18th c, famous for Lady Macbeth, parents not approving of acting career, performed at Drury

George Frederick Cooke
American actor, romantic style, one of first stars touring US – brilliant but drinking made him unreliable, villain roles

Edmund Kean
Romantic, child actor, elevated villains/wild characters – realistic portrayal of emotions, known for big moments (see not hear), performance like “reading Shakespeare by flashes of light”. drinking problem

William Charles Macready
English actor, moved from manager to actor – Drury Lane, wants to make high quality theatre – becomes great celebrity, introduces blocking and wants actors in character throughout rehearsal, more refined melodrama

Madame Vestris
English actress/producer/manager, performed in light comedies – breeches roles, burlesque (satires), toured America.

ran olympic theatre (burlesque /extravanganzas), managed Lyceum and Covet Garden, controlled money/labor for companies – influential to women, noted for huge spectacle production details – use of box sets (3 walls and props)

William Dunlap
American manager, one of first to produce original American plays (his own)

Samuel Drake
American early pioneer actor, toured with minimal actors/sets/showboats/ steamboats, takes acting company west and brought family along – created first professional theatre in west

Edwin Forrest
American – stereotypical “American” actor, toured in US and London – manly/strong/burly, contrasting English actors, acting style vigorous/athletic, rivalry with Macready –> Astor Place Riots,

Anna Cora Mowatt
french playwright/actress, child prodigy moved back to US and eloped to NY, secretly marries older wealthy lawyer, husband becomes ill/loses fortune, wrote plays/autobiographies about life on stage

Adolphe Appia
Swiss, lighting and scenic design, known for wagner’s operas, only wanted 3D living sets, design set around actor – more abstract, manipulate color/light (shadow, mood, definition, depth/focus, convey inner vision of characters)

August Schlegel
German, romantic literary critic, promote Shakespeare, organic unity of theatre – features function interdependently

T.D Rice
Irish American, blackface performances – inspired by street performer, comic/authentic imitation, ‘jumpin jim crowe’ character, minstrel show created

Victorian Sardou
emphasis drama/climax, critic Shaw refers to his plays as mechanical Sardoodledom (contrived drama empty of ideas), piece bien faite

Piece bien faite
The Well Made Play, oppose melodrama – intensive/ climactic, timing important, plot twists/ ‘calling of the blood’, Scribe and Sardou, “the glass of water’

Misunderstanding
a lot of action – good typically triumphs over evil, object plot turns on, weak hero – needs people to help him on, more climactic rather than episodic, understand logic of every event

Sarah Bernhardt
french famous actress, toured US, first on comedie stage of France then banned –> best tragic actress

Dion Boucicault
Ny playwright known for melodramas, started theatre career in London Comedy of Manners, made career in sensational, very involved in staging own plays due to special effects, became theatre manager/producer

Henry Irving
English actor-manager, surprised every aspect of show, managed Lyceum theatre, old fashioned melodrama instead of realism, specific details/location

Steele Mackaye
actor/playwright/theatre manager, detailed character portraits, interested in actor training, introduced delsarte system to america (scientific technique – observation), first used electric lighting to emphasize safety devises, new innovations – elevator stage, foldable seats, “the spectatorium”

Laura Keene
most powerful female manager in NY, established own theatres in Baltimore/California, starred in show Lincoln saw when assassinated, managed keene theatre/wanted to do best american drama – lavish production standards

Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
stage first director, used theatre to stay out of politics, runs court theatre – influential, historical accuracy, long rehearsal periods, ensemble acting. strong non actor who shaped performances. actors perform in Berlin –> huge success, tour everywhere

Richard Wagner
german opera composer, theoretical contributions (artwork of the future) – one composer to bring all elements together – music drama superior to other forms, art critical to life. interested in illusionistic theatre – gods, mythology – outside of everyday life.

Acquires Bayreuth Festival Theatre (classless theatre – all seats the same) – transport to mythical world onstage (no applauding/tuning of instruments to interrupt illusion)

Emile Zola
french – began theatre naturalism, theorist/playwright, advocate for scientific approach (environment and hereditary contributions), stage same things we read in private, let audience form their own opinions (ojectivity) – 3D naturalistic setting on stage, critiques classical and neo-classical theatre

Andre Antoine
french actor/theatre/ manager, founded Theatre Libre in paris – private theatre club to avoid censorship, naturalistic style of staging and acting, extreme 4th wall realism

August Strindberg
swedish naturalist playwright, expressionist/surrealist techniques, autobiographical works, misogynyst, battle of the sexes plays, post mental breakdown (inferno crisis) starts writing un-naturalistic plays, against ‘type characters’ (one dimensional)

Konstantin Stanislavsky
russian actor/director Moscow Art Theatre, trained actors extensively – method acting in US – observe real world to get idea of how to act –> ‘magic if’

Charlotte Cushman
american actress – strong ‘american’ persona, wanted to be opera singer but lost voice, Macready encourages dramatic acting, lady macbeth success / romeo and juliet with sister, toured around europe and US, –> lesbian

Edward Craig
english actor/director/scenic designer, director was true artist of theatre and actors just puppets, symbolic sets for everything – abstract, melodramatic/realist drama setting, grand designs. very self-promoting, wrote in journal The Mask

Aurelian Lunge-Poe
forms theatre de Louvre (theatre of work). symbolist – tries to take language to new level thats not realistic (actors chanting, sleepwalking). emphasize poetry/mystery, take us out of daily life, world lit plays.

Combination Company
organize to put on single play, build company around star actor, more elaborate/specialized scenery

Minnie Madern Fiske
american actress, child prodigy, married important publisher of theatre newspaper – doesnt cooperate with syndicate

David Belasco
american producer/playwright/director, brought new standard of naturalism to American stage, advanced lighting techniques and use of color to evoke mood/setting. eschew use of footlights in favor of follow spots and realistic lighting

Syndicate
formal organization founded by 6 men, intended to fix disorganization of touring system, provide quality attraction if all bookings done through syndicate, blackballed performers

Charles Matthews – the elder
english actor/manager, known for ‘at homes’ – solo performances portraying number of characters, poularizes racial/ethnic types (indian, irish, stage black),

gaslight
1840’s gas lighting becomes more extensive, see actors/scenery/costumes better – more special effects, short lived because electric light came 1880’s, less labor to operate than candles

expressionism
opposition to realism/naturalism –> idea that urban/industrial society can be stifling and prevent individual from full expression, theme of protagonist being limited/forced to conform

theatre libre
“free theatre”, Andre Antoine, put on many plays other theatres would not (especially naturalistic), only put on private plays for subscribers

Bowery theatre
lower east-side of NY, compete with upscale Park theatre – most succesful under populist pro-American management, working class theatre

Henrik Ibsen
father of modern drama, early plays historical verse drama, takes on subject matter/ideas previously taboo, challenges accepted ideas/conventions, responded to social problems of the day, carefully constructed plays – use machinery of well made play but cover with realism

Maurice Materlinck
plays form an important part of symbolist movement, wrote Joan of Arc, plays intentionally static , fairy-tale like plays

JR Planche
British dramatist, introduced historically accurate costume into 19thc british theatre – expert on historical costume. plays are vehicles for spectacle,

Freie Buhne
“free stage” – independent british theatre founded in 1889 by writers/critics, supervised by Otto Brahm – purpose to stage more naturalistic plays, only performed privately for subscribers

FT Marinetti
futurist – talks about bombing libraries/museums to get rid of remnants of past, aim to surprise audience, think big – provocative ideas

surrealism
beyond realism – big in french language theatre, go beyond censorship that occurs when reason controlling brain

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