ritual theatre
the middle stage of theatre’s evolution from rituals; the theatrical techniques of song, dance, and characterization were used, but the performances purpose was that of rituals. performances rooted in religion.

western drama
drama that grew out of the theatre of Thespis in ancient greece around 500 BCE. It passed from the athenians to the romans to the medieval Europeans and then to north america. also called Aristotelian because it grew it out of ideas of Aristotle.

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non western drama
theatre that does not have its orgins in Ancient Greece; includes the ancient ritual theatre of Africa, traditional theatre of Asia and Islamic shadow and puppet theatres. uses color, dance, song, and movements to exaggerate, stylize, and symbollically represent life. doesnt attempt to recreate reality, tied to ritual

precolonial african theatre
indigenout African theatre that grew out of ritual and predates contact with Europeans. A combination of ritual, ceremony, and drama, it incorporates acting, music, storytelling, poetry, and dance; the costumed actors often wear masks. Audience participation is important. concerned with religion and community.

theatre in africa
early europeans dismissed african theatre because it was unfamiliar.

in parts of africa invaded by muslims, islams antagonistic view of theare often reduced theatrical activity. european invaders stifled traditional african theatre.

Wole Soyinka
nigerian playwright. first african to win nobel prize.

wrote “Dance of the Forest”

total theatre
mixed traditions African ritual theatre and western- style drama. encouraged African nationalism, glorified Africas past and advances african customs, rituals, and culture. dealt with political themes. beginning with independence movement.

an encyclopedia of classical Indian dramatic theory and practice, written in 200 BCE-200 CE. Teaches actors dancing and stage gestures; also covers costume design, play construction, music, and poverty. 37 chapters

sanskirt drama
one of the earliest forms of theatre in India, performed in sanskirt by professional touring companies on special occaasions in temples, palaces or temporary theatres.

based on myths,ends happily. ex shakuntat

“story play”; a form of Indian folk drama begun in the second century CE and based on the hindu epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata

chinese theatre
grew out of regional religiois rituals such as confucianism, taoism, buddhism

peking opera
a synthesis of music, dance, acting, and acrobatics first performed in the 1700s in china by strolling playerss in markets, temples, courtyards, and the streets. known in china as the “opera of the capital” or ching-hsi, it was founded by Qing dynasty Emperor Chien-lung. precise acting, painted face, military and civil plays. altered when communists take over

painted face roles
in the peking opera, supernatural beings, warriors, bandits, and other stock characters whose makeup used elaborate geometrical designs and colors that symbolized character traits

red paint in chinese theatre

blue paint in chinese theatre

yellow paint in chinese theatre

black paint in chinese theatre

brown paint in chinese theatre

pear garden
school of the arts created by emperor Ming- Huong in 714 CE

civil plays
feature plots about imperiad concubines, conniving palace eunuchs, chivalry and romance

military plays
often set during 3 kingdoms period which china was divided into 3 kingdoms

Noh theatre
-includes Jo, Ha, Kyu-a form of traditional japanese drama combining poetry,acting, singing, and dancing that was developed in 1300’s from dance-prayers of Buddhist priests-5 types of stories are deities, helo, women, insaniti and legends-actors technique is a living tradition passes down from father to son.

a popular, robust, and spectacular version of the Japanese Noh theatre. The name comes from the characters for “song” (ka), “dance” (bu), and “skill” (ki)

Men who play female roles in kabuki theatre

Japanese puppet theatre with large wooden puppets with many movable parts, onstage puppeteers (3) dressed in black, and a narrator who chants the script.

in kabuki theatre, a sudden, striking pose (with eyes crossed, chin sharply turned, and the big toe pointed towards the sky) at a particularly intese or profound moment; accompanied by several beats of wooden clappers

shadow theatre
a form of theatre created by lighting two dimensional figures and casting their shadows on a screen.

Probably originated in china around 100 BCE and later became popular in Islamic lands, where people were prohibited from playing characters.- since graven images were forbidden in the Koran, shadow theatre became a way to tell stories.

in the 7th century is one of the first shadow puppet artusts

Ta’ziyeh religious dramas
in iran, are performed outdoors and use live animals. Here, actors perform in a play that memorializes Imam Hussein, grandson of Muhammud who died in battle of Karbala in 680 CE

Fatima Gallaire-Bourega
one of the Arab world’s most controversial playwrights working today

Minira al Mandiyyah
in 1915, one of the first muslim women to appear on stage

Awatif al-Salman
vetran star of Iraqi stage and television

Taliban’s rule in Afghanistan
(1995-2002), theatre was outlawed and actors were often imprisoned. after fall of taliban, theatre soon retruned

east meets west
-sanskirt drama influenced Goethe’s “Faust”-acting in peking opera influenced Bertolt Brecht’s development of epic theatre-the Kathakali dancers influences the directing stule of French director Ariane Mnouchkine-Indonesian puppet theatre influence directing stule of American director Julie Taymor

non western plays
appeal more to senses than to the intellect

restoration (1660-1700)
period of English history that began in 1660 with the reestablishment of the monarchy. It was characterized by scientific discovery, new philosophical concepts improved economic conditions and a return of the theatre

Charles II
-the puritans rulled england from 1642 to 1660.

when their leader Oliver Cromwell died, parliament announced that charles II, son of the beheaded Charles I, had the legal right to the throne-Charles II was “restored” as the king of england on May 29,1660-because he’s spent his exile in France, proscenium arches, neoclassical rules, plush costumes, and upper-class patrons shaped the new drama of london

comedy of manners
a form of restoration comedy that features wit and wordplay and often includes themes of sexual glorification, bedroom escapades, and human-kinds primitive nature when it comes to sex-marital intrigues, sexual liasons and poking fun at aristocratic fops

“The way of the world”(1700)
written by William Congreve, best example of comedy of manners

actresses on stage
women appeared on the stage for the first time in england in 1661

Nell Gwynn (1650-1687)
one of the Restorations most famous actresses, who specialized in performing “breeches roles”

Alphra behn (1640-1689)
-like her predecessor Christopher Marlowe, she led an exiting and unconventional life in and out of theatre-wrote over 20 plays including her most famous and often produced one entitled ” The rover” or “The Banished Cavalier”-also wrote a novel “Oroonoko: or the Royal Slave”, about an African prince and slave who leads a rebellion against English slave masters

a period in europe(1670-1800) that glorified the human power to reason and analyze; a time of great philosophical, scientific, technological, political, and religious revolutions.

characteristics of enlightenment
-ability to reason distinguishes what it means “to be human”-scientific inquiry is valued over, that of the blind acceptance of religious dogma-developing a critical awareness regarding social, political, and religious institutions and conventions-truth to be discovered, not accepted-the individual is expected to take responsibility for his or her own education

enlightenment thinkers
John Milton, Benjamin Franklin, Edmund Halley, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, Johnathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels

Theatre during enlightenment
domestic tragedies, sentimental comedies “She Stoops to Conquer” by Oliver Goldsmith “The Critic” by Richard Sheridan”The London Merchant” by George Lillo

Mile. Clairon (1723-1803)
-was a french actress who exemplified the acting principles advocated by Diderot-considered the greatest tragic french actress.-she shed popular declamatory acting for realistic approaches-started revolution in costumre and stage design when she began to dress in historical style

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781)
-german playwright, critic, and enlightenment philosopher who wrote plays about middle class-his play ” Nathan the Wise” was a plea for religious tolerance between the people of the three major religions: christians, jews, and muslims-the church condemned the play and it was never produced during his lifetime-he was denied a consecrated burial and was dumped in a public grave like many enlightenment writers and actors

Beaumarchais (1732-1799)
“The Barber of Seville” “The Marriage of Figaro” both attacked political despotism, religious hypocrisy and social injustice. some scholars see the play as triggering french revolution.

Voltaire (1694-1778)
-one of France’s greatest literary figures-an enlightenment intellectual who challenged the greatest political, religious, and artistic figures of his day-wrote over 50 plays, including ” Zaire”, “Fanaticism”,and “Merope”. -used wealth to fight legal battles against the church and won several lawsuits, forcing the state and the church to pay retributions to the families of the people they had tortured and executed for heresy.

Romanticism (1820- 1879)
-counters the rationality of the enlightenment with the primacy of feeling or emotion-counters the scientific method with a strong sense of the importance of intuition-counters the emphasis on commonly accepted reality with an affinity for the mysterious-counters the value of historical accuracy with an appreciation for the rule of myth-counters the artificiality of convention with a “return to nature”

Romantic Poets
-John Keats-William Wordsworth-William Blake-John- Jacque Rousseau

John Jacque Rousseau (1712-1778)
-called the father of the Romantic movement; he rebelled against the rationalists of the age of reason-argued that people could find happiness in a “state of nature” rather than the artificial and corrupted teachigns of society or civilization

Friedrich von Schiller (1749-1805)
-“The Robbers” (1778)-advocated for mood and emotion over plot and simple characterization

Victor Hugo (1802-1885)
Hernani (1830) started the Romantic revolution at its performance at the Comedie- Francaise

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
wrote “Faust”, the quintessential Romantic drama

Ira Aldridge (1807-1867)
-began his acting career at the African Theatre in NYC in the early 1820’s-first black actor to play the role of othello -recognized throughout europe as a major shakespearean actor

-simple plot lines-well defined characters-poetic justice-appeal to emotions rather than intellect-do not challenge the conventions of the audience

Training the Body
dance, martial arts, fencing, stage combat, circus techniques, yoga, Tai Chi

Training the Voice
breathing techniques, vocal technique in pitch volume and resonance, dialects, International phonetic alphabet, singing

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
a system for transcribing the sounds of speech that is independent of any particular language but applicable to all languages

Training the Mind
memorization skills, engaging with the imagination, levels of empathy, keen awareness of surroundings and others, ability to analyze and synthesize info quickly

Tadashi Suzuki
-Suzuki’s training embodies the stamina and concentration of traditional Japanese theatre-this rigorous training is designed to temper and shape the body so the actor can being to the stage a “brilliant liveliness” that takes into account the “tiniest details of movement”

Stanislavsky (method) acting
an individualized, psychological approach to acting pioneered by Konstantin Stanislavsky

given circumstances
character analysis that begins with examining character’s life -their particular situation-their specific problems-their limitations-their hopes

the driving force that governs a characters actions throughout the play

the ability to understand and identify with another’s situation to the extent of experiencing that person’s emotions

magic if
a technique pioneered by Konstantin Stanislavsky for developing empathy with a character. It invokes searching for the answers to the question “what would I do if I were this character in these circumstances?” the magic if allows actors to find similarities between themselves and a character and to explore the intimate emotions and thoughts that result

replacing a character’s emotions with unrelated personal emotions, a technique used when the actor has not had to experience or emotional reaction of the character

inner conflict
some sort of unfinished business that is so compelling that it handicaps the character until it is confronted

character flaw
an inner flaw that hampers a character’s good judgement and leads the character to make unfortunate choices

the conscious or subconscious reason a character takes a particular action

Actors’ Equity Association
union for stage actors

Screen Actors Guild
the union that represents film and television actors

American Federation of TV and Radio Artists
union that represents talk show hosts, announcers, singers, disc jockeys, newscasters, stunt people

open call (cattle call)
an audition to which anyone may come and be given a minute or so to perform for the director

cold reading
audition in which actors read from a script without any preparation

callback list
during auditions, a list directors keep of actors they want to call back for subsequent auditions as they narrow the field of candidates

Rehersal to Performance
tablework, blocking rehearsals, general working rehearsals, special rehearsals, off book rehearsals, run throughs, tech rehearsals, dress rehearsals,preview, and then performance

cast to type
hire an actor who physically matches the role

cast against type
deliberately cast actors who are the exact opposite of, or very different from, what is expected

gender neutral casting
casting without regard for the character’s gender

cross-gender casting
intentionally casting men to play womens roles and women to play men’s in order to study societal perceptionsof gender identity

color blind casting
choosing actors without regard for their race of ethnic background

the movement of the actors on stage during a production; the technique the director uses to achieve focus and “picturization”

shared focus
a position for two or more actors, each with a shoulder thrown back so that the audience can see them equally

an actors position at a tight angle to the audience, halfway between open and closed

stealing focus
taking focus out of turn

stage areas
one of the 9 sections of the stage labeled according to the actors’ point of view, such as downstage right, center stage, or upstage left

a technique for drawing focus when three actors or groups of actors are on stage, the person or group at the upstage or downstage, apex of the triangle takes the focus

interpretive directors
attempt to translate the play from the page to the stage as accurately as possible

creative directors
create “concept productions” based ont heir unique ideas or interpretations of a play script

found space
spaces where theatre can be performed such as parks, churches, town squares, basements, warehouses, gymnasiums, jails, subway stations, and street corners

Proscenium Arch
a formal arch that separated the audience from the actors, or a theatre with such an arch

apron or lip
the area of a proscenium arch stage that extends into the audience’s side of the picture frame

fly system
the elaborate network of pulleys, riggings, and counterweights that allows scenic pieces to be “flown” up and out of the audience’s sight from which actors make their entrances and in which sets are stored

areas out of the audience’s sight from which actors make their entrances and in which sets are stored

thust stage
a theatre with a lip that protrudes so far into the house that the audience must sit on one of the three sides of the stage

arena theatre
a type of theatre with the stage in the center, like an island, surrounded on all sides by audience; also called theatre in the round

black box theatre
a small theatre that generally holds fewer than a hundred people and has movable seats so that audience groupings can be changed for every production

basic elements of design
line, dimension, balance, movement, harmony, color, texture

lighting plot
a detailed drawing that shows the location of each lighting instrument on the hanging grid, where its light will be focused, its type, wattage and the circuitry needed and its color

sheets of colored plastic attached to the front of lighting instruments

metal cutouts placed on the front of lighing instruments to project patterns on a stage

motivated light
stage lighting that comes from an identifiable source, such as a candle, a lamp, or the sun

nonmotivated light
stage lighting that reinforces the mood of a scene but doesn’t necessarily come from an identifiable on stage source

set props
any prop that sits on the set, such as sofas, chairs, and beds

hand props
any objects actors handle while on stage, such as pens, fans, cigars, money, and umbrellas

set decoration
a prop that is part of the set and is not touched by actors

straight makeup
makeup that does not change actors looks but makes their faces look more three dimensional and therefore more visible to the audience

character makeup
makeup that completely transforms the way actors look, such as shadows, wrinkles and gray hair to turn young actor into elderly character

a style of theatre that attempts to seem like life with authentic looking sets, “honest” acting, and dialogue that sounds like everyday speech

problem plays
a play that expresses a social problem so that it can be remedied ex. play about poverty

box set
commonly used in realistic plays, a true-to-life interior containing room or rooms with the fourth wall removed so that the audience feels they are looking in on the characters private life

fourth wall
an imaginary wall separating the actors from the audience, an innovation of realism in the theatre in the mid 1800s

realism playwrights
george bernard shaw “pygmalion”oscar wilde ” The importance of being earnest”John Millinton Synge “The playboy of the western world”

Henrik Isben (1828-1906)
-father of realism-“A Doll’s House”-“Ghosts”-“Enemy of the People”-“Hedda Gabbler”

an extreme form of realism, an accurate “slice of life” look at existence- the russian playwright Maxim Gorky whose play “the lower depths: took a stark look at people livingin the cellar of a moscow flophouse

-symbolist drama sought to replace the specific and concrete with the suggestive and metaphorical. -meyerhold, a member of the moscow art theatre, explored the ideas of symbolism in his approach to performance

a subjective account of an objective perception-stage design that attempts to dramatize the psychologically subjective world view of one of the play’s central characters. Perspectives and proportions are often skewed and exaggerated

expressionism people
elmer riceLuigi Pirandelloaugust strindbergeugene o’neill

-for dadaists life has no purpose and they confused and antagonized their audiences by refusing to adhere to a coherent set of principle, therefore mirroring the madness of the world.

-the surrealists tried to reveal the higher reality of the unconscious mind with fantastic imagery and contradictory images.

they felt that if the subconscious could avoid the conscious minds control, it would rise to the surface, where it could be used to find truth.

Antonin Artuad (1896- 1948)
called for theatre of cruelty, which agitated the masses, atacked the spectators’ sensibilities, and purged people of their destructive tendencies, Artuad and the surrealists rejected method acting. They wanted stylized and ritualized performances-believed that proscenium arch theatres created a barrier between the audience and actors and that performances should instead be staged in found spaces such as warehouses

fatalist absurbism
-the devastation and genocide of WWII led many playwrights to conclude that humans face a cold, hostile universe and that our existence is futile.

Samuel Beckett (1906-1989)
fatalist absurdism-“waiting for godot”-“endgame”-“Knapp’s last tape”-“Happy Days”

hilarious absurdism
highlights the insanity of life in a comical way

Eugene Ionesco (1912-1994)
hilarious absurdismromanian born french playwright whose two most produced plays are: “Rhinoceros” and “The Bald Soprano”

Harold Pinter (1930-2008)
hilarious absurdism-english playright who was awarded nobel prize in 2005 who most famous plays include:”The Dumbwaiter”,”The Birthday Party’, and “Betrayal”

human beings are naturally alone, without purpose or mission, in a universe that has no god.

The abscence of god is not a negative, for without a god humans can create their own existences, purpse, and meaning

Jean- Paul Sarte (1908-1980)
-french philosopher and playwright who wrote on existentialism and its place in the world -his popular plays include: “The Flies” and “No Exit”

Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956)
-german playwirght/ director who responded to the devastation of WWI and its causes with a political theatre that expected its audience to take action-“The Three Penny Opera”-“Galileo”-“The Caucasian Chalk CIrcle”-“Mother Courage and Her Children”

Arthur Miller (1915-2005)
-post war theatre in us-“death of a salesman”-mixed realism with expressionism

Tennessee Williams (1911-1983)
-post war theatre in us-“The Glass Menagerie” (1945)-wrote in a style described as “poetic realism”

Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965)
-postwar theatre in us-“A raisin in the sun”-employed realism to give voice to the african american experience folowing WWII

off broadway
began with the “little theatre movement: as way of producing non commercial but important theatreex. circle in the square and the Manhattan theatre club

off off broadway
gave oppotunities to the more experimental theatre artists who wished to challenge society’s dominant political, social, and religious mores, such as the living theatre and the La mama theatre company

unstructured theatre events and performances that often encourage audience participation such as those of the bread and puppet theatre and the san francisco mime company

stage design that emphasizes the major aspects of a setting, with little or no attention to details

modern period in theatre
generally from time edison introduced lightbulb in 1873 to end of WWI-included impressionism and expressionism

a closed shop union
a union to which all employees must belong and which the employer formally recognizes as their sole collective bargaining agent

Writers Guild of America (WGA)
the closed shop union that represents screen and tv writers

open shop union
a union in which membership is optional (such as DGA)

Dramatists Guild of America (DGA)
the playwrights’ union in the USA, open shop union

the spoken text of the play; the words the characters say

a short description such as (loving), (angry), or (terrified) to help the actor or the reader interpret a particular line of dialogue

stage directions
notes that indicate the physical movements of the character

a play’s central idea; a statement about life or a moral-themes that are revealed through action are theatrically more interesting than those that are explicitly stated-themes are often open to interpretation by the directors,designers, and actors and the audience

the characters deeds, their responses to circumstances, which in turn affect the course of the story-characters come to life not by what they feel and think but by what they say and do

the hidden meaning behind a line of dialogue; the real reason a charcter chooses to speak

the causal and logical structure that connects events in a play

plot- structure
the playwrights selection of events to create a logical sequence of events to create a logical sequene and as a result to destill meaning from the chaos of life

a category of artistic works that share a particular form, style, or subject matter-the rules of the world of the play

dialogue about what happened to the characters before the play began and what happens between the scenes and offstage; also called back story

back story
dialogue about what happened to the characters before the play began and what happens between the scenes and offstage

in an ancient greek play, the main actor. Now, the central character who pushes forward the action of the plau

the character who stands in the way of the protagonists goals

an unusual incident, a special occasion, or a crisis at the beginning of a play that draws the audience’s interest

an inciting incident that upsets the balance and starts the action of a play that draws the audiences interest

point of attack
the point in the beginning of a formula plot where the protagonist must make a major decision that will result in colflict

major dramatic question (MDQ)
the hook or question that keeps an audience curious of in suspense for the duration of the play; an element in the beginning of a formula play that results from the disturbance and point of attack

rising action
the increasing power, drama, and seriousness of each subsequent conflict , crisis and complication in a play

dark moment
the end of the middle section of a fomula play, when the protagonist fails, the quest collapses, and the goal seems unattainable

enlightenment in play
the protagonists realization of how to defeat the antagonist often related to the theme of the play

the point of the greatest dramatic tension in the play, the moment the antagonist is defeated

the outcome of a play, a short final scene that allows the audience to appreciate that the protagonist, because of the preceding events, has learned some great or humble lesson.

straight plays
in contrast to a musical, the category of plays without music

a type of drama introduced at the end of the 16th century that is entirely sung

like an opera, a dream set to music, but with a frivolous, comic theme, some spoken dialogue, a melodramatic story, and usually a little dancing.- Also called a light opera-popularized by gilbert and sullivan

musical comedy
a type of musical characterized by a lighthearted, fast moving comic story, whose dialogue is interspersed with popular music

straight musical
a type of theatre that features song a dance interspersed with spoken text the genre includes not only modern musicals with popular songs and impressive spectacle but also the masques, operas, burlesques, minstrel shows, variety shows, and music hall reviews of earlier periods

rock musical
a musical that uses rock and roll music, psychedelic rocks or contemporary pop and rock

a program of satirical sketches, singing, and dancing about a particular theme.

also alled musical review

variety show
a program of unrelated singing, dancing, and comedy numbers

a popular form of stage entertainment from the 1880s to the 1930s , descended from burlesque.programs included slapstick, comedy routines, song and dance numbers, magic acts,juggling, and acrobatic performances

a form of musical entertainment that features bawdy songs, dancing women and sometimes striptease. Begun in the 1840s as a parody of opera and the upper class

in a musical script, the orchestrated melodies, which one written by the composer

for a musical, the sung words written bu lyricist

for a musical, the spoken lines of dialogue and the plot written by the librettist

book musicals
a musical with a particularly well developed story and charactersex.

fiddler on the roof

dance musicals
a musical that features the work of a director-choreographer such as Tommy Tune, Michael Bennet, or Bob Fosse

jukebox musicals
a musical that features a particular bands songs

operatic musicals
a musical that is mostly singing with less spoken dialogue and usually a darker more dramatic tone than an operatta has-Andrew Lloyd Webber-Stephen Sondheim

previews the music from the show by playing a medley of tunes before the show begins

usually a slow love song

comedy number
a song in a musical that provides comic relief

a big brass production number which received so much applause that it stops the show

repetition of pieces of a song or melody line in a later scene

comic opera
a style of oper, including operetta, that developed out of intermezzi, or comic interludes performed during the intermissions of operas. Popularized by the work of Gilbert and sullivan

ballad operas
comic opera that mixed popular songs of the day with spoken dialogue, brought from england to the colonies during the colonial period began with “Three Penny Opera” in 1728

minstrel shows
caricatured african american plantation life in song and dnace

“the black crock” in 1866 spawned this unique form of musical that emphasized elaborate scenert and scantily clad female dancing chorines

african american musicals
“a trip to coontown”, “the orgin of the cakewalk”, “runnin’ wild”, “dixie to broadway”, “blackbirds”

The Show Boat (1927)
-quintessetial american musical-integrated book, lyrics, and music into a unified whole-focused on serious themes in american culure-first musical to win the pullitzer prize-established Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II as major figures in the development of the american musical

Modern musicals
Porgy and Bess, Oklahoma!, Guys and Dolls, My fair lady, the sound of music, fiddler on the roof, cabaret, hair, a choras line

hollywood and bombay.over 800 films are made every year in india, many musicals

Federal Theatre Project
(1935-1939)FDRHarry HopkinsHallie FlanaganWPA

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