There havebeen series of inquiries about class size, but teacher-student ratio has notbeen conducted as extensively as the former. Number of students per teacher isgenerally associated with class size and it is mainly believed that smallerclasses provide a better teaching and learning. This belief has been shared bymany countries like the USA, European countries, China, Japan, and many othercountries and they made policies to reduce their class sizes. Amongst the OECDcountries, the average class size at the lower secondary level is 23. There arecountries like Finland, Iceland, the UK with class sizes of 19 and lower andcountries like Turkey, Korea and China with class sizes of 28, 34 and even 54; Blatchford& Lai, OECD (as cited by Nizamettin Koca and Bekir Celika, 2015). Accordingto the available data online, Shanghai student-teacher ratio (junior highschool) fell gradually from 13.
91 persons in 2005 to 11.49 persons in 20141.Teacher-studentratio is assumed by many as class size; though they are related, they are notaccurately the same in nature. Class size is the number of students in a classor, the total number of students in a classroom. Teacher-Student ratio is the numberof students per teacher, in other words the amount of students a teacherteaches in a school (Graue & Rauscher, 2009). In schools with smallerteacher-student ratio, teachers can have extra time to spend with each studentand review their improvement and also provide a greater individualized teachingthat accommodates each student (Johnson, 2011). Schools with larger class sizeand high teacher-students ratio recorded poor performance while better academicperformance is associated with schools with small size and lowerteacher-students ratio.
Other studies like Bozzomo (1978), Bourice (1986) andBolton (1988) confirm that there was no relationship between the size of theclass and the results. The empiricalevidence on teacher-student ratio (T-S ratio) is mixed. In fact, severalstudies conclude that there are no effects of T-S ratio on student achievements.However, there are also compelling findings demonstrating a positive effect ofincreased T-S ratio on student learning, especially for low achievers andstudents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, see for example, Falch, Sandsør,& Strøm; Hoxby; Leuven & Løkken, Blatchford, Bassett, Goldstein, &Martin; Finn & Achilles; Fredriksson, Öckert, & Oosterbeck, Buckingham,Wheldall, & Beaman; Fien et al.; Vaag Iversen & Bonesrønning (as citedby O.
J. Solheim et al., 2017). 1 https://knoema.com/atlas/China/Shanghai/Student-Teacher-Rate-Junior-High-School