There is a study called the Hofstede Culture Dimensions. These dimensions represent how different cultures behave. The study was conducted by Dr. Greet Hofstede. Each of the dimensions has an index that ranges 0 to 100.
This it not only used to study a country’s culture. It can be applied on the national, regional or even organizational level.The first culture is Power of Distance; the degree to which ‘less powerful’ members of a society accept the existence of differences in the levels of power.
A higher score suggests that there are expectations that some individuals will have much more power than others. Countries with high distance in power are typically more violent. The Latin American and Arab nations are cataloged as the highest in this category; Scandinavian and Germanic in the lowest.The second dimension is the individualism. It means that members tend to make decisions alone and care about themselves and their family members. In collectivist societies, group ties are strong, and the family includes the extended family.
The third dimension is masculinity contrasting femininity. In societies with high Masculinity, people are driven by competition and results. People tend to be more assertive and focused on materialistic success. In feminine societies, people are focused on building and maintaining good relationships, also ensuring a high quality of life for all.The fourth dimension, The Uncertainty Evasion Index (UAI) explains how members feel when handling unfamiliar situations. In cultures with strong UAI, people tend to avoid risks and unexpected situations. Members of cultures with a weak UAI tend to be more tolerant of what they cannot control. The fifth dimension is long term versus short term orientation.
Companies with long-term orientation encourage people to invest and be thrifty. Being perseverant and cautious has its rewards. The members in society have different ranks, and the older ones must be respected. Societies with Long Term Orientation also tend to adapt the traditions to modern contexts. The societies that have Short Term Orientation respect the traditions but encourage spending and immediate gains.
The last dimension is Indulgence vs Restraint (IVR). This dimension examines the importance of happiness and control of life. Societies with high Complacency Index (high IVR) allow people to freely meet their needs and wishes, especially those related to enjoying life and having fun.