This module. PLC divided into four main components such

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Last updated: July 4, 2019

Thisresearch paper focuses on the three main topics of Programmable LogicController (PLC). The role it plays in automotive Industries environment, toexplain the advancement in how a PLC communicates with another device and todescribe the need for a safety PLC instead of a standard or general purposePLC.Themain Purpose of plc is dividing the huge task into pieces, organizes and givesa sequential order of the output regards of the program in the real-timeapplication.

PLC are designed in different shapes and sizes. The smaller PLClike micrologic 1000, Micro logics 1400 are designed with fixed I/O modulemostly used to small project and plc trainer board. However, large PLCs areused in big industries. It is more flexible to update the input-output (I/O)module.PLCdivided into four main components such as.1.

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    The backplane and power supply.2.    CPU (central processing unit)3.    I/O (input/output)4.

    The Program sectionThePower supply converts the input power source to suitable and steady power tothe PLC.  Processor(CPU) –  Is the brain of the PLC it controls all theprocess functions.   •    Input module –  Read the incoming signal from the sensors,limit switch.•    Output module – Energize the contactors,solenoids and motor controller (motor drive)Thereare two types of Input-output modules.

1.    Sinking ground connected to the load. 2.     Sourcing- voltage source is connected tothe load. TheCPU also has four operating modes such as:1.    Programming Mode – allow to download,update or modify the program.2.

    Run Mode – Monitor the I/O and anycommunication with another device.3.    Stop Mode – Stop the sequence of theprogram and it shut off the output.4.    Reset Mode- Reset the program fromoperation back to home position. Tofunction, the PLC needs to complete few steps. These are plugging the PLC intothe power source, set the program selector switch of the PLC into program mode,download the program finally set the program selector switch in to run mode.

Now the PLC is ready to initiate. There are two modes to start the sequence.1.    Manual mode – To initiate the cycle itrequires pressing the start button.2.

     Auto mode – It initiates the cycleautomatically upon the feedback from the input part percent sensor. Once thecycle starts the PLC keeps running unless something happened or part delayed. Todetermine the effectiveness of the PLC program (logic) need to analyze the scantime which is the amount of time, that takes to complete the process from thepresence of the part to the input and run the program to update the output. Thescan time is measured in a millisecond. Primarily,a programmable logic controller is a device used for automation of the typicalindustrial electromechanical process, such as the control of machinery andRobotics on the assembly lines and in harsh working environments. PLCs are usedin many machines. in many industries that minimizing the worker’s pressureunder Fast-paced environment and repetitive tasks by inters connected withanother machines and robots.

It is designed to handle digital and analog inputsand outputs and to store the program non-volatile (Static) memory. Once itprogrammed it will stay for long period unless its damaged or reprogrammed.”logic controller (PLC) is a special form of microprocessor-based controllerthat uses a programmable memory to store instructions and to implementfunctions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic tocontrol machines and processes and is designed to be operated by engineers withperhaps a limited knowledge of computers and computing languages” (Bolton,2009, p.

16).        Secondarily,newest version of Programmable Logic Controller is more advance communicationport than the oldest one that’s only connected through cablesRS485, and RS232 to modify and update the program or for troubleshootingpurpose. It requires the presence of a technician through advancement, PLCs cannow communicate via the internet. “The most advanced PLCshas an incorporated Ethernet port on the controller for two principaloperations. The first is controlling remote I/O on Ethernet-based conventionslike EtherNet/IP, Profinet, or Modbus/TCP.

The second is to program andadditionally troubleshoot the interior program of the controller” (Reszka,2011, para.2). BeforePLCs workers used to check each part manually in sorting and inspection line.

It was time-consuming and made it easy to expose the product to contamination.Currently, the PLC takes over by communicating the vision system, inspect thefinal product, decreases unnecessary contamination and handling problem,decreasing human mistakes and increasing the quality and number of products. Furthermore,today different manufacturers make different types of PLC.

For example,Siemens, Omron, Schneider, and Allen-Bradley are some of the manufacturers.However, they have a different design and different programming approaches, butall have the same purpose. All types of Programmable logic    controllersessentially do the same thing inputting a set of instructions to implementdesignated processes but a safety PLC is designed for the specific task hence,minimizing workplace hazards.

it has different criteria depending on thesafety standards of the country. example China, Germany, and North Americastandards. “A safety PLC is a dedicated controller specifically built andcertified to meet safety requirements, such as functional safety directives IEC62061, ISO 13849-1 or IEC 61508 that defines Safety Integrity Level (SIL), orthe levels of risk reduction provided by some safety function” (Budimir, 2016,Para.

2).Currently,a safety PLC is one of the requirements of safety standards it monitors safetyequipment such as a light curtain, area scanner, e-stop robot cell interlocks,conveyor system, press machine, food, and beverage industries. Thatcontinuously monitors and prevents workers from death, injuries and workplace hazards.

   Inclosing, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is the brain of automation worldthat monitors inputs from the sensors, limit switch processes based on theprogram and energized the output and gives a sequential command to control themachine. PLC is more flexible and compact in relation to the relay(contactor)controlling system. It reduces human efforts by communicating and commandingthe robotic devices to complete manufacturing tasks, increases the number ofproductions, minimizes the safety and workplace hazards and monitors thequality of the product. On the other hand, it has disadvantages such asunemployment rate Increases. However, the initial costs are higher since itrequires professionals to wire and program. In addition, it has significant advantagesin automation world: It is cost-effective, reduces waste material, Improves thequality and productivity, it is also easy to program and to troubleshoot.Overall PLC is reliable and repeatable.

Making it the most important part ofautomation. 

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