Through same district officers have a lot of

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Last updated: September 5, 2019

Through the examination of thispaper it will reveal the common stereotypical cultural values of society byvirtue of the stop and frisk tactics. This paper will compare and analyzeextensive research from well-respected scholars in their field and deem whetherthere is sufficient evidence pointing towards such tactics authorized by policeofficials as civil and constitutionally legal. Stop and frisk by definitionmeans a type of search that requires a lawful stop. The question surroundingthis tactic is what construes an officer to have probable cause to detain aperson for suspicion of a narcotic or obtaining a weapon? Where is the linedrawn from it being a search and frisk to violating one’s rights? New York Citybeing the home of thousands of different cultures, ethnicities, genders, and religionsall in the same district officers have a lot of work at hand with such a diversecommunity.

Through careful cross-examination, the evidence will reveal howwhile on the surface these journals explore the anonymity of stop and friskwithin marginalized racial identities what they are really exploring is howvalidation through extensive research deems this tactic as not effective.”Stop, Question, and Frisk in NewYork City: A Study of Public Opinions” by Evans, D. N.

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, & Williams theauthors outline the intentions behind using stop and frisk and claims that thelanguage puts a label isolating specific ethnic groups (African Americans andHispanics). The journal is split between internal emotions and externalpressures of stop and frisk being inferior to the recipients. Through extensiveresearch of New York City for over 40 years it examines attitudes toward thepolice analyzing citizens perceptions of stop and frisk. The study uncovers theeffectiveness of stop and frisk from different demographics demonstratingcharacteristics from minorities and younger citizens. What is unveiled is thatofficers were targeting those who were unemployed, living in low income areas and education of a GED high school diploma inhaving been frisked more than once from the community in which they live in. In “The Consequences of DisparatePolicing: Evaluating Stop and Frisk as a Modality of Urban Policing”by Huq, A. Z the author exposes the terminology of stop and frisk and how thereis power in words that can be meant to inflict enmity. Through body language,the tone in which the content of the word is said to have many differentmeanings and can be interpreted differently to people in a variety of situations.

Through the Terry v. Ohio and Floyd v. City of New York are referenced from the mid to late 90s addressing issues that arestill relevant in 2017 are cases that madeit to the Supreme Court and revolutionized the police and their tactics. Theyaddressed the limits of the American Constitution’s Fourth Amendment and EqualProtection Clause. In these two cases, it heldofficers in need of “reasonable, articulable suspicion of criminality toconduct a stop and frisk.” The ideology behind stop and frisk arose from themid to late 90s cases that helped create a foundation for what justifies a stopand frisk.

In “Stop and Frisk Under Floyd v.City of New York: The Difficulty of Proving a Fourteenth AmendmentViolation” by Clark, D the author writes a declaration that exemplifies thecommonly used stereotypical cultural values of stop and frisk in society in asatirical matter. The article focuses on thebreakdown of “Floyd v. City of New York” case which holds anestimated 170,000 stops conducted unlawfully out of the District Court for theSouthern District of New York. These stereotypes explore how stop and friskthrough the form of microaggressions exposes the inequality and the strugglesfaced in society. In each and every single one of these cases they confront thestop and frisk policy sharing depictions of inadequate grounds of violating theFourth Amendment.

These cases showed the recurrence of officer’s searches beingless based off reasonable suspicion and more racial profiling. Depictions of inadequategrounds of violating the Fourth Amendment put to question officer’s searchesbased on less than reasonable suspicion and their remedies for constitutionalviolations. In “The Impact of Police Stops onPrecinct Robbery and Burglary Rates in New York City, 2003- 2010″by Rosenfeld, R., & Fornango, R the authors cunningly draw a similarlywithin providing intriguing evidence that exploits New York City for equatingburglary rates worth appearance to stop and frisk. Thearticle focuses on the issue of crime reduction and how drastic thesereductions in crime were during the 1990s into the early years of this currentcentury in New York City. In a study of stop and frisk and robbery andburglary that was conducted in New York between 2003 and 2010 on a yearlyprecinct level studies revealed few effects of stop and frisk on robbery andburglary.

Researchers have debated whether the roleof stop and frisk which has been criticized for its unfair targeting ofinnocent people, racially biased, and ineffectiveness being a cause for thedramatic fall in robbery and burglary. The research challenges associated withevaluating the effects of stop and frisk on crime rates with accommodating dataprior and present, methods, and findings of the current and prior studies.Researchers caution to not take a definitive conclusion that current and priorresearch address both the impact on stop and frisk and robbery andburglary. In “Collateral Damage: The HealthEffects of Invasive Police Encounters in New York City” by Sewell, A. A.

, &Jefferson, K. A the authors bring awareness behind the meaning of health effectof invasive police encounters through evidence that serves as context towardslabeling anonymity within marginalized racial identities. This article focuses on those living in neighborhoodswhere most stops are more likely to result in frisking. Studies evaluateand associate between invasive aspects of pedestrian stop and frisk andmultiple dimensions of poor health. Results reveal that living in neighborhoodswhere pedestrians are stopped are more likely to become invasive is associatedwith worse health.

The health effectives ofinvasive police encounters through the usage of microlevel health data from2009-2012 shows the effects of police surveillance practices for thecommunities of New York City. Minorities living in neighborhoods with a racialdisparity in police behavior have poorer health outcomes. African Americanshave lower odds of diabetes when they live in neighborhoods where they face ahigher risk that a stop and frisk will be used with force by police. Thefindings suggest that living in neighborhoods where stops are more likely to resultin frisking are consistent and are negative associations.In “Living under surveillance:Gender, psychological distress, and stop-question-and-frisk policing in NewYork City” by Sewell, A. A., Jefferson, K.

A., & Lee, H the authors revealhow the use of gender appeals to stop and frisk. Thisarticle focuses on the research of the massive stop and frisk policing tacticsleading to incarceration. Tests have been done to determine whetherthere is an association between psychological distress and neighborhood levelaggressive policing. That those living inneighborhoods with aggressive policing can lead to affect one’s mental health.Frisking and use of force varies by gender men being targeted the most bypolice suffer more than women. The 2009 through 2011 New York City Stop andFrisk database merged with individual data from the 2012 NYC Community HealthSurvey found men exhibit less psychological distress but experience more severefeelings of nervousness than women. Male residents being targeted more thanwomen are affected in escalation situations of stop and frisk policing in aneighborhood.

Living in such context of aggressive policing the risk factor formen’s mental health increases. Whileon the surface the tactic is discussing drugs and guns what these authors arereally exploring is whether massive stop and frisk aggressive policing tacticslead to affect one’s mental health and incarceration. After examining these texts to understand the extent of stop andfrisk the journals exploit claimsthat the language puts a label isolating specific ethnic groups (AfricanAmericans and Hispanics). The terminology and how there is power in words thatcan be meant to inflict enmity. Through body language, the tone in which thecontent of the word is said to have many different meanings and can beinterpreted differently to people in a variety of situations. These stereotypesexplore how stop and frisk through the form of microaggressions exposes theinequality and the struggles faced in society.

Bringing awareness behind themeaning of health effect of invasive police encounters through evidence thatserves as context towards labeling anonymity within marginalized racialidentities. What is unveiled is that officers were targeting those who wereunemployed, living in low income areas andeducation of a GED high school diploma in having been frisked more thanonce from the community in which they live in. Through careful reconnaissance,the evidence reveals how while on the surface these journals explore theanonymity of stop and frisk within marginalized racial identities what they arereally exploring is how validation through extensive research deems this tacticas not effective.

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