Throughout that hold society together. The two types


this essay I will be outlining the current issue of social structure in Irish
society and how sociology helps us to better understand this. “Sociologists
define society as the people who interact in such a way as to share a common
culture. The cultural bond may be ethnic or racial, based on gender, or due to
shared beliefs, values, and activities” (Culture and
Society Defined”, n.d.).  This essay will
look at the social structure and how it is created within society. Emile
Durkheim is known to have created very influential theoretical approaches.

Durkheim emphasised the importance of social norms. He was interested in the
forces that hold society together. The two types of solidarity Durkheim
identified will be discussed. This essay will examine how Durkheim’s theory can
help us understand the social structure issues in society.

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Irish society
a long time ago was full of people who were poorly educated and were never
given the right information when learning how to work and adapt in society.

Olden Irish society was so divided. the Republic of Ireland was described as a society with a rigid social
structure, some even describe Ireland as a 100% class system despite the
egalitarian attitude in the media and public. The lower class is typified by poverty, homelessness, and unemployment. The
working class are those minimally educated people who engage in “manual labor”
with little or no prestige. The middle class are The white collar workers, have more money than those
below. The upper class in
societies is the social class composed
of the wealthiest members of society, who also wield the greatest political


But coming into 2018 now, Ireland
has adapted into a more equal and diverse society. This can be seen in the
sexuality acceptance in Ireland. where Ireland had voted by a huge majority to legalize same-sex
marriage, becoming the first country in the world to do so by popular vote in a
move as a social revolution and welcomed around the world. Where back in the
early 70’s and before it was very uncommon to see or know someone that accepted
the idea of two people of the same sex to be together.


predominant religion in
the Republic of Ireland is
Christianity, with the largest church being the Roman Catholic Church. Back in
an older Ireland this was seen to be the unanimous religion in Ireland, if you
were not to support the catholic church you were seen to be an outsider. But
since Ireland has adapted to a modern society with the help of education and
communication, different religions are now accepted and not seen to be fround upon.

The number of those saying they had no religion increased by 74%. The 2011
figure was 277,237, which rose 204,151 to 481,388. Both the Muslim
and Jewish populations grew by 28.9%. this shows how this country has adapted. – (C.S.O/cenus,









Durkheim was known for his views on the structure of society. He focused his
work on how traditional and modern societies function and evolved. Emile’s
theoretical approaches were founded on the concept of social facts which were
also defined as the norms, values and different structures of society. Durkheim
spent most of his time examining things external in nature, as opposed to
internal in nature. He believed that 
values and rules are necessary to a functional society. He thought
society should be described in terms of its functions. Society is a system of
interlinked parts, where no one part can function without the other. Each part
make up the whole of society. If one part changes, it had an impact on society
as a whole (Giddens, 2013, p 12).


main idea was a division of labour. His thought focused mainly on the move in
societies from a simple society to one that is more complex. Emile argued that
traditional societies consisted of the same types of people who had similar
values, religious beliefs and backgrounds. Social norms were very strong, and
social behaviour was well monitored. In comparison, modern societies are made
up of a complicated division of labour, beliefs and backgrounds. Common
consciousness was less obvious and the regulation of social behaviour was less
punishing and more disciplinary. It’s aim was to restore normal activity to
society (Giddens, 2013, p 12).


relation to the division of labour, Durkheim identified two types of
solidarity. The first one being mechanical. This takes place when individuals
within the structural units are similar and self sufficient. People are more
closely knit together because they are working at the same thing (e.g.

farming), sharing common beliefs and values. Anyone who is seen to be breaking the
rules is immediately punished. Organic is the second one. This is when a large
population is split up into smaller units. There is a greater division of
labour and people become more economically dependant on each other. This
replaces the bonds of shared beliefs (Giddens, 2013, p 12).


Durkheim was a sociologist who pioneered in the study of social order. He
theorized how societies maintained social order on mechanical and organic forms
as well as transitions to industrialized society form a primitive one.

a primitive society, people act and think alike because of a mechanical
solidarity. On the other hand, an advanced society will have its people in
divisions of labor where they are allocated and rewarded accordingly.

In his concept of divisions of
labor it has helped us understand Irish society. The
core principal why division of labor is vital is that humans rely on happiness
in being free to possess material thing and to seek them. This makes its
influence to be on a personal level and based on one’s mental liking.

Specialization in the face of division of labor creates a need in individuals
to operate on a social basis so that they may maximize the returns and hence
increased happiness. Wherever there is a common ideology between people who are
together if its family or friends, they tend to have creative thinking that can
be of use to them. This works well especially if they are great in numbers
since they can always support each other. Division of labor has had a history
of revolution to what it is today. A good example of the division of labor and
how its adapted, “One man draws out the wire; another
straights it; a third cuts it; a fourth points it; a fifth grinds it at the top
fen-receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct

(Essays, UK. (November 2013). The
Division Of Labor In Todays Society Sociology Essay)



approach was based on social facts and the structure of society. He felt that
there was a huge division of labour, which to some extent is arguably still the
case today. I grasped a lot of knowledge from the mechanical and organic types
of solidarity Durkheim identified. It also shows how Durkheim has influenced
modern society with his concepts and division of labor. It shows that in every
society needs to have the support from everyone else in order for all of the
society to successfully operate. This has been adapted from 1893 all the way to
modern date and will continue to adapt.






–       (C.S.O/cenus, 2017 ,n.d.)


–       Giddens, A.

(2013). Sociology, 7th Edt, Cambridge, Polity Press.


‘Culture and
Society Defined’. (n.d.). Retrieved 20 January, 2018, from Cliff Notes website:


Essays, UK. (November 2013). The Division Of Labor In
Todays Society Sociology Essay



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