: to be re-liquified for decanting and further

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Last updated: September 10, 2019

: Design and Development of Efficient Insulated Tankers / Containers with Automatic Temperature sensing Steam System for Transportation and Unloading of Low Melting Point Liquids Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and DegreesInstitutional Affiliation(s) Author Note Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address. Abstract The abstract should be one paragraph of between 150 and 250 words.

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  Note that all of the styles for this template are available on the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Styles gallery.Keywords:  Click here to add keywords.: Design and Development of Efficient Insulated Tankers / Containers with Automatic Temperature sensing Steam System for Transportation and Unloading of Low Melting Point LiquidsProblemStatementProblem StatementSemi-solid materials or materials with low melting pointstend to solidify during transport in standard containers used for transportingliquids.

Moreover, during the loading, transport and unloading of semi-solidmaterials; a lot of energy is wasted. The semi-solid also needs to be re-liquifiedfor decanting and further use which is done by blowing steam onto the material.This process of re-liquification results adds impurities to the liquified rawmaterial which needs to be further purified before utilization, adding to bothtime and financial cost. This project aims to tackle the following aspects of thisproblem:·        Monitoringof the state of the raw material during transport·        Reducingheat-loss of the material during transport·        Reducingcosts during loading, transport and unloading of the material·        Eliminatingimpurities from the unloading processIn the next section we will explore novel solutions for thisproblem already developed by global transport companies. After which we willestablish a design statement and finalise deliverables.

Literature ReviewTransportation of goodsThe purpose of this thesis is to find a solution from theShipping Industry of Pakistan, by transporting “Temperature-Sensitive” fluids,by providing the necessary insulation/heating. The fluids or semi-solids chosenfor this thesis requires temperature lower than 70 degrees to liquify. Figure 1: Pakistan Map of Koppen Climate Classifiaction (M. C. Peel, 2007) Pakistan relies heavily on its ports on the Arabian Sea for international tradewhich has a monsoon climate.

Minimum air temperatures of about 24 to 25 °C atthe sea’s surface occur in the central Arabian Sea in January and February,while temperatures higher than 28 °C occur in both June and November and duringthe rainy season, which occurs when the southwest monsoon winds blow. Inland,the temperature varies greatly from hot arid desert conditions in InteriorSindh and Punjab, with temperatures rising well beyond 40 °C in summer, to colddesert conditions in the Northern Areas where temperatures regularly fall below0 °C.  Most of Pakistan’s manufacturing and industry isconcentrated in cities along the Indus River Delta in Sindh and Punjabprovinces; from Karachi in the south through Multan, Lahore, Faisalabad andRawalpindi in the north. A lot of manufacturers have their facilities based inrural areas of Punjab and Sindh. Imported goods arriving in Pakistan invariablyarrive at the ports in Karachi; the International Container Terminal at KarachiPort, or at the offloading docks at Bin Qasim Port. The material is then transferredupcountry to these manufacturing facilities using containers.

Transportation of goodsThe Australian Army and the US Army werethe first to develop standardized containers for the transport of goods and reliedheavily on containers to ship everything from clothing, to food to arms duringWorld War II. The Australians used containers that were 20 foot long and wereclose to the specifications used by today’s ‘International Organisation forStandardisation’ (ISO).In 1951, Denmark constructed the firstship with the express capability of transporting steel containers. In the US,ships were built and used to transport containers from Seattle to Alaska butthe lack of standardised sizes made the idea inefficient.

Some containers werejust 5 ft. long while others were 20 ft. Packing and stabilising was adifficult chore.

 (Marpak Extrusions, 2014)At the same time, railroads werechurning out more and more flatbeds to accommodate container shipping. The needfor standardisation became even more evident.By 1968, the ISO launched a four partinitiative:·        January 1968 – ISO R-668 defined theterminology, dimensions and ratings assigned to metal containers.·        July 1968 – ISO R-790 was adopted. Thisstandard defined the identification markings that should be used on shippingcontainers.·        January 1970 – ISO standard T-1161 wasadopted an contained specific recommendations regarding the corner fittings onshipping containers.·        October 1970 – The last of fourimportant ISO standards R-1897 established the minimum internal dimensions ofgeneral purpose freight containers.

Globally, pharmaceutical and foodcompanies have put in more effort in developing solutions to handle andtransport products that require “cold storage” rather than hot. Global lossesin the food industry total more than $750 billion annually which lossesprimarily result from lack of proper facilities, improper  safety handling procedures and insufficienttraining for those personnel working in the temperature sensitive productshipment. Additionally, over $260 billion of annual biopharma sales aredependent on hot/cold chain logistics to ensure the efficacy of their products (Department of Commerce, USA, 2016).

Many products are used for suchtemperature sensitive products such as heated containers, thermally insulatedcontainers and using phase changing materials, but using such instruments havetheir disadvantages: they’re not to safe, they cost too much, they are noteco-friendly or that their off-loading/loading is too complex and requiresspecialized equipment. Another problem seen here in Pakistanis that the Temperature is not monitored during the shipment. This adds to therisks such as the temperature reaching extreme limits, risk of damaging theproduct, risk of losing the customer, and in case theyhave to put in extra effort for liquefying the fluid and risk ofincreasing costs due to replacement of additional product, labor and extendedtimelines. Having a monitoring system will also help reduce maintenance cost ofthe container itself.  Some fluids are only pumpablewhen they are heated above ambient temperatures, the heating is required duringthe shipment so that the fluid does not become solid or semi-solid, and as a resultcannot be pumped out of the containers due to the external frigid temperature.The literature review consists of inventions and apparatus made to keep theliquid heated at all times of the shipment.Notonly is it common sense, it has also been shown time and time again by bothpublic and private research that monitoring and controlling the shipping oftemperature sensitive materials could potentially have a very significantimpact on the cost of logistics. For instance, a study by Berlin Packaging onone pharmaceutical company, Pfizer, showed that the careful shipping oftemperature sensitive elements could save over $2 million per year for them inEurope alone, and, depending on the complexity of the unloading/loadingprocess, free up to eight people to perform other work.

It has been seen that the shipping industry is becoming moreand more efficient. Even consumers are now concerned with the purchase of  those products and services that have lessnegative impacts on environment and governments are actively seeking the bestpossible methods to reduce costs while retaining efficiency and readiness.This is doubly important for Pakistan as its geography makesit an ideal candidate to become a nexus of world trade. China specially relies onPakistan for its trade at it is as it provides the shortest link of transportbetween Middle Eastern countries and European Countries, It has planned toinvest $46 billion for CPEC, which will help in reduction of its shipping costand delivery time. This is one of the biggest investments China has ever donein a foreign country.

The current trade route from China to Europe and MiddleEastern countries is expensive, long and unsafe.  According to recentstudy that due to the construction of CPEC the shipping costs between Kashgarand destination ports can decrease by 36% for European ports, 50% for Jeddahand Kuwait and 68% for Oman  The proposedtrade route of China-Pakistan economic corridor will reduce distance betweenChina (more specifically Kashghar in Xinjiang Province, 4,376km away fromBeijing) and the Persian Gulf to 2,500 km as opposed to the existing distanceof 13,000 km from Beijing to the Persian Gulf and reduce shipping time from 45days to 10 days . So it is a great concern for companies in Pakistan to useenergy efficient containers and they are high in demand. Another research showthat the containerization will go on growing and according to the contemporarysituation it is assumed that is has grown with an increase around 7% per year since1980. (Board of Investment, 2015)Developments in Temperature Controlled ShippingSome fluids are only pumpable whenthey are heated above ambient temperatures, the heating is required during theshipment so that the fluid does not become solid or semi-solid, and as a resultcannot be pumped out of the containers due to the external frigid temperature.The literature review consists of inventions and apparatus made  to keep the liquid heated at all time of theshipment.

  (Repeated)Use of steam jackets This apparatus is used for heating IBCs (intermediate bulkcontainers) by covering the containers with the jacket. The IBC is lowered inthe shipment is fitted lower than the supporting surface of the container onthe pallet base, when an identical IBC is stacked on top of such an IBC, slightcompression of the container will take place at the top. The aim is to providesuch an IBC that can be produced(Manufactured?)in a simple manner using standard components but which enables more efficientloading in a standard sea container. Figure 2: Heated Jacket for IBCs The heated jacket is made of insulated flexible material. The insulated jackethas one or more electrical heating elements near the inside of the jacket.These heating elements are connected to an electrical cord which is pluggedinto a power source, such as an electrical outlet.

The temperature of theinside of the container is maintained through the thermostat on the jacket. Thetemperature of the jacket is maintained between 20-80 degrees. A cutoff switchmay also be given if the temperature exceeds more than the highest temperatureor goes lower than the lowest temperature so that the thermostat adjusts itstemperature or the required people are notified . The jacket may contain two ormore straps or other fastening methods to properly secure the container. Thesejackets are made to withstand extreme cold temperatures such as -20 degrees andstill keep the liquid in its fluid form (Patent No.

US 6380523 B1, 2002).  It is a disadvantage of the heated jackets  that it is difficult to get heat into thearea of the container at the bottom of the container, due to which heating coil has to be added on the base of the containers, tokeep the whole container heated at all times Heated ContainersThis invention consists of a Container which has anelectrical coil attached on its base, Once the liquid is put in the container,the coils are energised and the, induction currents flow in the metal baseplate to produce heat which is transmitted to the container and its contents. Thiscan be used to heat large volumes of liquid. Typically the containers may be 40imperial gallon (205 liter) circular-cylindrical oil drums or intermediate bulkcontainers (IBC’s) which may have a volume of 1000 liters and a squarehorizontal cross-section. (Patent No. WO 2006111701 A1, 2006) The base which consists of electrical coil must be made of athermally insulating base, preferably fiber reinforced composite material. Thecontainer should be thermally insulated to prevent heat passing from the baseto the ground; this will provide the necessary physical protection.

Thecontainers can be rectangular or cylindrical depending upon the customer. As aprecaution heated jackets may also be used to keep the heating  Another research shows that to prevent fluid coagulating orgelling because of low temperatures a heated container is designed which has aflexible cover containing a heating element within it, the heating element isconnected to a power cord, due to this the heating occurs and continues to keepthe fluid in liquid form. Preferably, the cover container comprises bothlongitudinal and lateral, releasable top straps that hold the cover securely inplace. Another objective of this research says that the heating containers mustbe durable and resistant to weather and abrasion and is also water repellent.  The disadvantage of using power supplied heating containersis that if incase the power supply goes off then, liquid will turn in a solidor semi-solid depending on the temperature if the element and the temperatureoutside. There are some companies that claim that they can solve this issue aswell. (eltherm GmbH, 2016)  By Using Insulated Packaging There are 3 common types of insulated packaging for shipmentof temperature sensitive materials ·        Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) foam·        Polyurethane (PUR) foam·        Vacuum Insulated Panels (VIP)A study shows the comparison of all 3 insulating packages   Where the R value is a measure of thermal resistance, or theability to prevent the transfer of heat.

The larger the number, the harder thatinsulation is working at preventing heat conductionIt is also best to be precise with the dimensions of thepackaging. The surface area of a package is significant factor in determiningthe thermal efficiency of a packaging system. By minimizing the externalpackaging size, the thermal efficiency is optimized. Minimizing the surfacearea exposed to the environment reduces the area for heat transfer to occur.For example, if a pharmaceutical product can fit into a 5 x 5 x 5 in box but ispacked into a 10 x 10 x 10 in box, the product will change temperature almostthree times faster simply due to the increase in the external surface area ofthe box.EPS today is the most popular thermal packaging material asstated in (Temperature control packaging in transit) (Anon, 2007).

EPS consistsof 98% air, which makes it the lightest and lowest cost thermal insulator. Themicroscopically small air bubbles that make up the closed cell foam give an averagethermal conductivity of 0.038W/mK at 15g/liter density. Increasing the densityup to 28g/liter further enhances the insulating properties (Anon., 2007) Another study found the use of greenboxes, because as compared to the above mentioned insulatingpackages these are reusable and they in result less expensive.

The study showsthat it has it can provide 10 times more insulation than PUR and EPS , andthese green boxes can also be used up to 50 times for shipment  These insulating packages use Phase Changing Materialsinside the containers to keep the liquids heated and prevent them fromsolidifying. When a PCM freezes, it releases a large amount of energy in theform of latent heat at a relatively constant temperature. Conversely, when suchmaterial melts, it absorbs a large amount of heat from the environment Management Decision Tools for Predicting Shipments Decision Matrix  Decisions matrices can be used to improve decision making byplotting out routes where additional protection, like packaging or speciallogistic services area needed. Figure 3: Decision Matrix (SensiTech)  Decision TreeDepending on the amount of thermal variability along a givenroute, a decision tree may be helpful in managing overall protective supplychain needs. The goal of a decision tree is to develop a process that allowsthe organization to make cost-effective decisions on distribution andmonitoring requirements. The tree is based on the product-route matrix anddefines the solutions including: carrier, temperature control requirements,service level, and monitoring requirements. The decision tree  can be enhanced with weather information tomake a predictive Figure 4: Decision Tree Model (SensiTech) model.

         Design StatementBased on the Requirements Priority Research on the product given by the costumer Deliverable   Research and analysis on the best container required for the shipment containing abilities to withstand heat and pressure Deliverable   Research on best way of providing heat to the container Deliverable   Design of shipping container used to keep the fluid in a liquid state while being shipped in a bulk quantity Deliverable   Reducing energy consumption during unloading of the container Deliverable   Compliance to OGRA, ISO and NHA Standards for containers Deliverable   Research of IoT devices for temperature monitoring Wish (High)   Installing/Testing the IoT device on the shipment  container Wish (High)   Testing of the temperature throughout the shipment and the final state of the temperature sensitive fluid Wish (High)      Bibliography Anon. (2007). Temperature control packaging in transit. Plastics and Rubber Weekly. Board of Investment. (2015). China Pakistan Economic Corridor as a window of Opportunity.

Islamabad: Prime Minister’s Office, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://boi.gov.pk/ViewNews.aspx?NID=+763 Department of Commerce, USA.

(2016). 2016 Top Markets Report: Cold Chain. International Trade Administration. Retrieved from https://www.trade.gov/topmarkets/pdf/Cold_Chain_Executive_Summary.

pdf eltherm GmbH. (2016). Electrical Tank Container Heating Systems. Retrieved from eltherm GmbH: https://eltherm.

com/en-ca/applications/customised-engineered-solutions/electrical-tank-container-heating/ M. C. Peel, B.

L. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.

5194/hess-11-1633-2007 Marpak Extrusions. (2014). A Brief History of Container Shipping and Logistics. Marpak Extrusions. Retrieved from http://marpak.co.

uk/a-brief-history-of-container-shipping-and-logistics/ Newton, M. W. (2006). Patent No. WO 2006111701 A1. SensiTech.

(n.d.). Good Cold Chain Management. W. Tommy Jones, S.

(2002). Patent No. US 6380523 B1.    

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