To fulfil anenvironmental impact assessment all literature suggest following guidelinesgiven by local authorities of the given study site. Environmental impactassessment help to get a broader understanding to ecological factors of a sitein conjunction with the planning of any events and buildings plans. The role ofan environmental impact assessment sets out guild lines for mitigating anycircumstances that can affect biodiversity and ecology and is a way to planaround anything that may be affected. Theregulations apply to an EU directive “On the evaluationof the effects of firm private and public projects on the environment(Department for Communities and LocalGovernments, 2006). The guidelines merely relate to convinced categories ofinfrastructure.They can also be applied to permitteddevelopments plans, which are plans that do not require planning permissions.
However, in some cases an environmental impact assessment may not apply toother sources of developments related to other regimes, these would requiredifferent environmental impact assessment criteria. The SeaCourt project (Sea Court, 2015) discuss themethods and scoping exercise used for their plan, this research focuses on themethods and the techniques used in order to carry out a successfulenvironmental impact assessment looking particularly at the scope andmethodology. As for all environmental impact assessments Sea Court state thatthe first stage of an environmental impact assessment requires you to definethe scope for the assessment. Which primarily looks at defining the variety oftopics being addressed (Sea Court, 2015).The criterialooked at in this research takes into account the aspects of the environmentfor what in most likely and significantly affected by the development. Theresearch looks at soil, fauna, climaticfactors, material assets, water, air, including the archaeological and architecturalinheritance, landscape and the inter-relationship amongst the direct factors.
(Sea Court, 2015).The researchstates that the EIA takes into consideration effects arising from both thedevelopment processes as well as the completed proposed development. With thisresearch project, they take into account the noise, damage to habitats andarchaeological artefacts. In order tohave a successful environmental impact assessment a clear defined scope wouldbe required for the early stages of the assessment. The Sea Court research haslisted a table for their scoping processes.
Withinthe frame work of this project the methodology used by Sea court has asuccessful way in showing good scope and a precise methodology in carrying outan environmental impact assessment however this method wont utilise theresearch question in this research project. This research project primarily focuses on the impact of humans on agreen environment; however, the Sea Court research is focused on themethodology in doing an environmental impact assessment. To gain anunderstanding of human impact this research will utilise the environmentalimpact assessment as a tool to gain results on whether humans have had animpact on ecological factors within a green environment. In order to carry thisforward, the environmental impact assessment will be repeated over periods oftime to observe change by using analytic techniques within the regulations ofthe EIA in order to perceive affects caused by humans.
3.2 Mapping ecosystemservice supply’The Natural Choice’ suggest, “Nature is taken for granted andundervalued” this why the Ecosystem services guidelines have been derived, themethodology for carrying out an Environmental impact assessment is given by TheMillennium Ecosystem Assessment classification of ecosystem services. Theecosystem services take account of provisioning services such as freshwaterprovisioning, regulatory services such as air quality regulation, culturalservices such as Aesthetic value and supporting services such as soil formation.(institution of ecology and environmental management, 2016).
Land use by human activity results in land cover changes, thesechanges can have a massive effect to the extent of what an ecosystem canprovide. (Haines-Young et al, 2012). The supply of these numerousgoods and services cause by nature should match demands occurring from thesociety. This research done by Benjamin Buckhard etal. (2012) looksat data by using methods that are both qualitative and quantitative. By usingtechniques such as land surveying, GIS and remote sensing. The research focuseson the assessment of ecosystem service supply and demand through spatial andtemporal scales.
The application process used is necessary in improving theconcept as a tool for natural resource management (Kienast et al., 2009). The implementation and quantificationof ecosystem services and goods are amongst the main tasks of recent ecosystem science(Wallace, 2007). The researchlooks at mapping new ecosystem services, many other similar to this have beenderived for a recent detailed review of a current approach to mapping ecosystemservices through different spatial scales can be sourced through Burkard et al,(2009).New approaches and research onmapping ecosystem service are offered through ( Koschkeet al.
, 2012; Schneiders et al., 2012; Nedkov and Burkhard, 2012; Haines-Younget al., 2012; Scolozzi et al., 2012).
The result gained from this research show patterns of humanactivity over a time frame in conjunction with measurements of diverse ecosystemsdelivering ecosystem services under varying land use. With this researchlooking at mapping the ecosystem service it does not identify whether or nothuman activity relates to any change in the ecosystem services provided howeverit does give a good method to utilise in order to get a spatial understandingof a given area for assessing ecosystem services. While mapping and evaluating ecosystem service request and source,the problem faced lies in the middle of ecosystem benefits, functions andservices with high significance (de Groot et al.,2010; Haines-Young and Potschin, 2010; Burkhard et al., 2010).
“ecosystemservices are the benefits humans obtain from nature” is the global numerous appliedexplanation, the most common used description in the Millennium EcosystemAssessment (MA, 2005). and the linked four classificationswhich are provisioning, supporting, regulating and cultural services are not atall times suitable (Seppelt et al., 2011, 2012;Wallace, 2007).
For instance, Fisherand Turner (2008) argument, we need to define amongst ends and means if we want to operationalize ecosystemservices. Therefore, Boyd and Banzhaf(2007)introduced the term final ecosystemservices which are components of nature directly enjoyed, consumed or used toyield human well-being. Most ofthe other components and functions of anecosystem would then be intermediate products respectively intermediateservices. This goes along with Fisher and Turner (2008) who propose thatecosystem services’ benefits must have a direct relation to human well-being.For example, nutrient cycling is an ecological function, not an ecosystemservice (Boyd and Banzhaf, 2007). However, the distinction between intermediateand final services is often observer-based and depending on rather subjectivedecisions.
Therefore, we follow a framework which integrates the concept ofecological integrity as the base for the supply of regulating, provisioning andcultural ecosystem services (Müller and Burkhard, 2007). Ecological integritymeans the preservation against nonspecific ecological risks that are generaldisturbances of the self-organizing capacity of ecological systems. Thisself-organizing capacity is based on structures and processes in ecosystems,and appropriate indicators for their description have been defined and appliedin several case studies (Müller, 2005; Burkhard and Müller, 2008).
Land use andrelated land cover modifications have a strong impact on ecological integrity.Alterations of ecological integrity lead to increasing or decreasing suppliesof selected or bundles of ecosystem services, on which human societies depend.