To fulfil an
environmental impact assessment all literature suggest following guidelines
given by local authorities of the given study site. Environmental impact
assessment help to get a broader understanding to ecological factors of a site
in conjunction with the planning of any events and buildings plans. The role of
an environmental impact assessment sets out guild lines for mitigating any
circumstances that can affect biodiversity and ecology and is a way to plan
around anything that may be affected.
regulations apply to an EU directive “On the evaluation
of the effects of firm private and public projects on the environment
(Department for Communities and Local
Governments, 2006). The guidelines merely relate to convinced categories of
They can also be applied to permitted
developments plans, which are plans that do not require planning permissions.
However, in some cases an environmental impact assessment may not apply to
other sources of developments related to other regimes, these would require
different environmental impact assessment criteria.
Court project (Sea Court, 2015) discuss the
methods and scoping exercise used for their plan, this research focuses on the
methods and the techniques used in order to carry out a successful
environmental impact assessment looking particularly at the scope and
methodology. As for all environmental impact assessments Sea Court state that
the first stage of an environmental impact assessment requires you to define
the scope for the assessment. Which primarily looks at defining the variety of
topics being addressed (Sea Court, 2015).
looked at in this research takes into account the aspects of the environment
for what in most likely and significantly affected by the development. The
research looks at soil, fauna, climatic
factors, material assets, water, air, including the archaeological and architectural
inheritance, landscape and the inter-relationship amongst the direct factors. (Sea Court, 2015).
states that the EIA takes into consideration effects arising from both the
development processes as well as the completed proposed development. With this
research project, they take into account the noise, damage to habitats and
In order to
have a successful environmental impact assessment a clear defined scope would
be required for the early stages of the assessment. The Sea Court research has
listed a table for their scoping processes.
the frame work of this project the methodology used by Sea court has a
successful way in showing good scope and a precise methodology in carrying out
an environmental impact assessment however this method wont utilise the
research question in this research project.
This research project primarily focuses on the impact of humans on a
green environment; however, the Sea Court research is focused on the
methodology in doing an environmental impact assessment. To gain an
understanding of human impact this research will utilise the environmental
impact assessment as a tool to gain results on whether humans have had an
impact on ecological factors within a green environment. In order to carry this
forward, the environmental impact assessment will be repeated over periods of
time to observe change by using analytic techniques within the regulations of
the EIA in order to perceive affects caused by humans.
3.2 Mapping ecosystem
‘The Natural Choice’ suggest, “Nature is taken for granted and
undervalued” this why the Ecosystem services guidelines have been derived, the
methodology for carrying out an Environmental impact assessment is given by The
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classification of ecosystem services. The
ecosystem services take account of provisioning services such as freshwater
provisioning, regulatory services such as air quality regulation, cultural
services such as Aesthetic value and supporting services such as soil formation.
(institution of ecology and environmental management, 2016).
Land use by human activity results in land cover changes, these
changes can have a massive effect to the extent of what an ecosystem can
provide. (Haines-Young et al, 2012). The supply of these numerous
goods and services cause by nature should match demands occurring from the
This research done by Benjamin Buckhard etal. (2012) looks
at data by using methods that are both qualitative and quantitative. By using
techniques such as land surveying, GIS and remote sensing. The research focuses
on the assessment of ecosystem service supply and demand through spatial and
temporal scales. The application process used is necessary in improving the
concept as a tool for natural resource management (Kienast et al., 2009). The implementation and quantification
of ecosystem services and goods are amongst the main tasks of recent ecosystem science
looks at mapping new ecosystem services, many other similar to this have been
derived for a recent detailed review of a current approach to mapping ecosystem
services through different spatial scales can be sourced through Burkard et al,
(2009).New approaches and research on
mapping ecosystem service are offered through ( Koschke
et al., 2012; Schneiders et al., 2012; Nedkov and Burkhard, 2012; Haines-Young
et al., 2012; Scolozzi et al., 2012).
The result gained from this research show patterns of human
activity over a time frame in conjunction with measurements of diverse ecosystems
delivering ecosystem services under varying land use. With this research
looking at mapping the ecosystem service it does not identify whether or not
human activity relates to any change in the ecosystem services provided however
it does give a good method to utilise in order to get a spatial understanding
of a given area for assessing ecosystem services.
While mapping and evaluating ecosystem service request and source,
the problem faced lies in the middle of ecosystem benefits, functions and
services with high significance (de Groot et al.,
2010; Haines-Young and Potschin, 2010; Burkhard et al., 2010). “ecosystem
services are the benefits humans obtain from nature” is the global numerous applied
explanation, the most common used description in the Millennium Ecosystem
Assessment (MA, 2005). and the linked four classifications
which are provisioning, supporting, regulating and cultural services are not at
all times suitable (Seppelt et al., 2011, 2012;
For instance, Fisher
and Turner (2008) argument, we need to define amongst
ends and means if we want to operationalize ecosystem
services. Therefore, Boyd and Banzhaf(2007)introduced the term final ecosystem
services which are components of nature directly enjoyed, consumed or used to
yield human well-being. Most ofthe other components and functions of an
ecosystem would then be intermediate products respectively intermediate
services. This goes along with Fisher and Turner (2008) who propose that
ecosystem services’ benefits must have a direct relation to human well-being.
For example, nutrient cycling is an ecological function, not an ecosystem
service (Boyd and Banzhaf, 2007). However, the distinction between intermediate
and final services is often observer-based and depending on rather subjective
decisions. Therefore, we follow a framework which integrates the concept of
ecological integrity as the base for the supply of regulating, provisioning and
cultural ecosystem services (Müller and Burkhard, 2007). Ecological integrity
means the preservation against nonspecific ecological risks that are general
disturbances of the self-organizing capacity of ecological systems. This
self-organizing capacity is based on structures and processes in ecosystems,
and appropriate indicators for their description have been defined and applied
in several case studies (Müller, 2005; Burkhard and Müller, 2008). Land use and
related land cover modifications have a strong impact on ecological integrity.
Alterations of ecological integrity lead to increasing or decreasing supplies
of selected or bundles of ecosystem services, on which human societies depend.