Tourism is claimed to be unsustainable due to its impact on the environment and on civilization ; and it is believed that it could be self-limiting as the assorted indexs refering its indefensible nature are emerging. However, the state of affairss antecedently encountered have made the touristry industry more cognizant and so it has taken steps to prolong its merchandise for the hereafter. As a effect, the touristry industry has instituted codifications of environmental moralss and other enterprises to raise consciousness and protect the natural and cultural environments ( Harris, Griffen and Williams, 2002 ) .
In add-on to that, less developed states remain more vulnerable to the negative impacts of touristry on the societal ; natural and physical environment ; and cultural environments and these are the really characteristics on which their touristry merchandise depends. It is of import to observe that sustainabilityrefers non merely to environmental protection but alsoto the benefits to be realized by the locals in the surrounding communities. Halloway ( 2004 ) emphasizedthat they should profit from the economic results of touristry development through employment chances, preparation, environmental consciousness and general engagement in community development.In add-on, these less developed states continue to see economic lack and are hence unable to supply the needed substructure needed for touristry. This state of affairs hence lends its ego to investings by foreign companies who have the resources for touristry development.
In order to pull these investings, the authorities affords them revenue enhancement interruptions, land entree, low environmental criterions and decreased operating costs. These states, hence, are trusting on the echt good purposes of these foreign investors in helping in touristry sustainability ( Harris et al. , 2002 ) .
Background to the Problem / Study
The research worker holds a strong sentiment refering the duty the adjustment sector has to the societal, economic, cultural and natural / physical environments, specifically in footings of their part to community development in Jamaica, since they are profiting from the usage of the resources inclusive of the natural and physical environment, the labour force and besides particular privileges such as revenue enhancement relief / interruption. In add-on, the development of new hotels over the past five old ages in Jamaica has been an issue as there are concerns sing their aims for operating. This position was shared by Kinsbury ( 2004 ) who cited that: “third universe touristry typically involves labour development, unequal gender dealingss, cultural devastation and environmental degradation” ( p.1 ) .
This underscores the ‘leakages – linkages issue ‘ , which asserts that hotels are profiting from the resources used for touristry and are non imparting an equal sum of their grosss or net incomes into community developments.The research worker believes that any signifier of benevolent activities could promote linkages with the environing communities and apparently cut down the perceptual experience that the bulk of net incomes are being repatriated to the place states or being invested elsewhere, thereby ensuing in economic escape for Jamaica. Some of the socio-economic benefits for the surrounding communities could include societal and cultural interaction, economic authorization through entrepreneurial activities and comfortss such as schools and wellness Centres. If these are encouraged so socio-economic development could perchance be assured and this is believed to be a major index for sustainable development.
Statement of the Problem
There is a demand to find if the big hotels in Jamaica are utilizing philanthropic gift selling to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible. It is besides imperative to determine what mechanisms are they utilizing to carry through this aim ; and what is / are the existent reason/s for making so, is it due to pure selflessness, strategic concern direction or authoritiess ‘ inducements and statute laws.
Purpose of the Study
This research seeks to find how the big hotels in Jamaica are utilizing philanthropic gift selling to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible.The information gathered by this research will therefore assist the research worker to associate whether or non these hotels are using the patterns of philanthropic gift selling, to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica. These Acts of the Apostless of benevolence could perchance better the manner of life of the people in footings of being socially and culturally connected, economically empowered and holding the available substructure and societal installations. Hassen and Latiff ( 1999 ) believed that concerns depend on the environing environment in which they operate. They can non run in isolation as they depend on the fortunes of this environment.
The hotels could besides profit from philanthropic gift selling in the long term as there are some clients who favour concerns that carry out these activities ( Ricks Jr. , 2005 ) . Likewise, the receiver community could perchance supply support to their operations.Although information refering to the direction theory of philanthropic gift selling may be limited ( Holcomb, Upchurch and Okumus, 2007 ) , the research worker opted for this country, as it appears to be underexplored and underexposed and would decidedly add to the bing organic structure of cognition in this country.This enquiry, nevertheless, will travel beyond the benefits to be realized by the big hotels that pattern philanthropic gift selling, and will concentrate on the benefits to the socio-economic environment of Jamaica.
Significance of the Study
This survey will assist readers understand the importance, value and relevancy of philanthropic gift selling and the function big hotels can play in the socio-economic development of Jamaica as a tourer finish.
It will inform the reader of the aspect/s of the statement the research worker wants to prosecute, thatis, big hotels, philanthropic gift selling, socio-economic development and their part to sustainable development. This enquiry will assist readers understand the function of philanthropic gift selling as a scheme for socio-economic development in footings of the community, substructure ; and the human, cultural and heritage resources among other factors.Similarly, the term philanthropic gift selling may look new to some readers although they may hold already been engaged in such activities, and so this enquiry is intended to better inform them of this construct and the similarities it bears with other impressions such as corporate duty, planetary corporate duty, strategic philanthropic gift and corporate societal duty. The survey will lend to the bing organic structure of cognition ; promote future research in the country and stands as a claim to be accepted by readers.
The readers coulduse the information to be better informed of how they can be responsible to the societal, economic and natural / physical environment of the finish and finally contribute to its socio-economic development.Some of the possible practical deductions are that readers might:
- Have a better apprehension of the relationship between these constructs, that is, philanthropy selling and socio-economic development ;
- Accept the impression and integrate it into their strategic direction program ;
- Use it as a agency to extenuate against any negative perceptual experiences or impacts of their operations ;
- See its benefit as being more than accomplishing promotion and doing net incomes but to be more benevolent and considerate of the macro-society and
- Use it as a agency to lend to the sustainable development of Jamaica.
Utility and Worth of Study to Readers
The undermentioned readers may happen the research relevant:1. Government / Tourism Planners: To understand the part that big hotels may or may non do to the socio-economic development of Jamaica through the pattern of philanthropic gift selling.
- Will be better able to acknowledge whether or non philanthropy selling through community activities such as sponsorship of bungalow industries and other entrepreneurial and economic ventures have fostered economic growing and development ;
- Will acknowledge whether or non philanthropy selling is of import in making and beef uping linkages with the environing communities which will ensue in the people holding a sense of belonging ; cut downing societal and cultural barriers and making harmoniousness and
- Can take a firm stand or even mandate new investors through the statute law of policy to include philanthropy selling in their strategic program if it is advantageous in accomplishing socio-economic development:
2. Hoteliers: To utilize the information to:
- Guide their strategic way in footings of the development of communities, substructure and superstructure, human resources and Cultural and heritage resources and
- To acknowledge the cyclical agreement where philanthropic gift selling will ensue in better socio-economic environment which can finally take to profitableness.
Alumnus Students will be able to:
- Obtain utile information pertinent to their country of survey.
- Conduct future research in this country and other related countries.
4. Academicians will be able to:
- Obtain utile information pertinent to their country specialisation which would be utile in lectors and in steering / oversing pupils ‘ research documents.
- Conduct future research in the country so as to add to the organic structure of bing cognition.
5. Community Advocates will hold cognition of these benefits and will be better able to:
- Appreciate the being of these big hotels ;
- Acknowledge the value and relevancy of any aid given to them and
- Negotiate with them in footings of aid for socio-economic development.
The undermentioned premises were used to steer the research procedurein footings of information obtained from secondary beginnings:
- The big hotels are involved in philanthropic gift selling activities geared at lending to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible?
- The big hotels in Jamaica are utilizing assorted signifiers of philanthropic gift selling to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica.
- The big hotels in Jamaica are engaged in pure selfless philanthropic gift instead than business-oriented philanthropic gift.
- The Jamaican authorities has non facilitated, legislated nor executed philanthropic gift selling as a agency for sustainable development.
Restrictions of the Study
Researching for similar subjects and country of research revealed that similar surveies have been done, particularly in Europe through non specific to the usage of the term philanthropic selling but utilizing the other constructs such as corporate duty, planetary corporate duty, strategic philanthropic gift and corporate societal duty. These surveies, nevertheless, were non specific to hotel operations.The research worker has non found any survey of this nature antecedently done in the Caribbean or Jamaica.
Many of the illustrations used were hence from other sectors / industries external to Jamaica and the Caribbean. This, hence, posed a challenge in determining background information in this country of survey particular to the hotels in Jamaica. Newspaper and internet beginnings were relied on for current information and this besides proven unequal thereby proposing that many of the big hotels may non be engaged in beneficent activities or these activities may non be documented or publicized.These restrictions, hence, necessitates the demand for such a research to officially chronicle such activities.
Definition of Footings
Philanthropy: A discretional duty of a house which involves taking how it will voluntary apportion its slack resources to charitable or societal service activities that are non concern related and for which there are no clear societal outlooks as to how the house should execute ( Sanchez, 2000 cited in. Ricks Jr. , 2005 ) .
Selling: A societal and managerial procedure aimed at fulfilling the demands and wants of clients ( Kotler, Bowen and Makens, 2003 ) .Philanthropy Selling: Enacting benevolent activities that will fulfill the demands of the stakeholders of a concern and hence will profit the society.Large Hotels: Topographic points of adjustment with 200 or more suites.Socio-economic Development: Bettering the societal and economic state of affairs in a society which is measured by betterment in Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , degrees of employment, societal mobility, literacy degrees and general life style among other factors.
This is a conceptual paper designed to reexamine and critically analyse the assorted literature related to the ways in which big hotels are utilizing philanthropic gift selling to the socio-economic development of Jamaica. However, for lucidity and to ease a better apprehension, the research worker separated the literature reappraisal which highlighted the current province of personal businesss from both the planetary and local positions from the treatment subdivision which provided an of analysis of the findings of the literature reappraisal and how they relate to the premises made.
The literature reviewed sought to research how the big hotels in Jamaica are utilizing philanthropic gift selling to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible. In order to to the full understand the impression of philanthropic gift selling in the context of this research and to supply background information, the construct was to the full explored by measuring the associated footings and doing the nexus between the footings, philanthropic gift and selling.
The literature besides looked at the socio-economic parts of philanthropic gift selling.The other countries that are most pertinent to the research include the pattern of philanthropic gift selling by big hotels in Jamaica, the selfless and business-oriented natures of concern philanthropic gift, and the function of authorities in facilitating, passing and put to deathing philanthropic gift selling as a agency for sustainable development.
The Concept of Philanthropy
The term philanthropic gift may look new to some concerns, although they may hold already been engaged in such activities.
These patterns have been officially established as corporate philanthropic gift, planetary corporate philanthropic gift, social selling and strategic philanthropic gift. They have besides been linked to footings such as societal duty, corporate citizenship and corporate sustainability ( Holcomb et. al. , 2007 ) .Although the aforesaid constructs are different in names, ( Holcomb et.
al. , 2007 ) posited that there is a commonalty that exists with all of the assorted footings and that is, companies should prosecute in socially responsible behavior as portion of their organisation scheme.
Types of Business Philanthropy
The followers is a description of the different philanthropic patterns employed by concern organisations:
I ) . Corporate Philanthropy
Paul ( 1993 ) as cited in Genest ( 2005 ) defined corporate philanthropic gift as:“a group of people authorized to move as an person, particularly in concern, who portion a concern for the good luck, felicity, wellness and prosperity of world and demonstrate this concern through Acts of the Apostless that are good, friendly and helpful” ( p.4 ) .Casson ( 1991 ) as cited in Bennett ( 1998 ) noted thatthere has been an addition incorporate philanthropic gift in European companies since 1980 due to grounds such as the handiness of more resources to donate to charity and this is as a consequence of the high degrees of amalgamation and acquisitions ; improved net incomes ; more sophisticated charitable organisations and increased force per unit area from authorities sing community engagement.Harmonizing to Genest ( 2005 ) , organisations have been using several enterprises to run into their philanthropic aims.
These he noted, included the followers:
- Direct parts to non-profit-making establishments ;
- Social partnerships with selected non-profit-making establishments or non-governmental organisations ;
- Contributions to equipment or merchandise ;
- Matching gift programmes for employees and supplying scholarships ;
- Contributions to instruction, civilization, health care and civic personal businesss ;
- Education and medical aid in the obliteration of diseases and
- Support to community substructure.
Genest ( 2005 ) besides noted that the above list has non been exhausted as there are chances for organisations to:“do good while strategically positioning the company to run into its concern objectives” ( p316 ) .Ricks Jr. , ( 2005 ) , added that corporate philanthropic gift is enacted when corporationdonates a portion of its resources to a social cause. He proposed that there are four signifiers of corporate philanthropic gift, viz. , directed, general, proactive and reactive. He explained directed philanthropic gift as philanthropic activity that will profit a specific mark market or strategically allows the company to be associated with the section, as opposed to general philanthropic gift which is a response to a demand or a negative event.
Both proactive philanthropic gift and reactive philanthropic gift are geared towards increased visibleness and improved corporate image but proactive philanthropic gift stemmed from a natural concern such as environmental issues. On the other manus, reactive philanthropic gift is a response to a negative event such as environmental or societal issues. In this instance, force per unit area is placed on the company to react ( Ricks Jr.
, 2005 ) .
two ) . Global Corporate Philanthropy
Genest ( 2005 ) purported that this is a agency of reacting to corporate duty in a planetary environment. He opined that the usage of corporate societal duty can enable concerns to be sustained and this can merely be attained through planetary citizenship, particularly since factors such as terrorist act are impacting their ability to make good. He cited Novartis which is a transnational pharmaceutical company in Switzerland, as an illustration of an organisation that has a written policy on corporate citizenship that guides their employee behaviour worldwide and reflects their nucleus values in footings of societal and environmental duties.
Philanthropy has been incorporated into the concern operation of Novartis and is hence non viewed as a separate map.
three ) . Social Selling
Kotler et Al. ( 2003 ) in analyzing the development of the assorted selling constructs purported social selling to be the manner frontward for concerns in their selling push.
It ‘s a agency whereby which organisations should non merely purpose to find and fulfill the demands of its mark market but to make it in such a manner where it will better their well-being every bit good as those of the general society. He proposed that concerns should make a balance among their budgeted net incomes, client wants and society ‘s involvements.
four ) . Strategic Philanthropy
This term has been defined by McAlister and Ford ( 2002 ) as the:“synergistic usage of organisational nucleus competences and resources to turn to cardinal stakeholders ‘ involvements and to accomplish both organisational and societal benefits” ( p.
689 ) .Large companies have instituted corporate foundations, employee commissions responsible for charity every bit good as staff maps dedicated to philanthropic activities. For case, the Bank of America Foundation has contributed in surplus of $ 90 million and Ford Motor Company Foundation more than $ 97 million to benevolent activities ( McAlister and Ford, 2002 ) .A Conference Board Survey of 463 companies in the United States of America ( USA ) indicated that those organisations that approached philanthropic gift in a businesslike mode benefitted from improved image and increased employee and client trueness ( Schwartz and Smart, 1995 cited in McAlister and Ford, 2002 ) .
Strategic philanthropic gift, nevertheless, does non include merely benevolence such as contributions but besides philanthropic attempts geared towards employees every bit good as clients, providers and social demands ( McAlister and Ford, 2002 ) .
six ) . Corporate Social Responsibility
Hill and Jones ( 1998 ) posited that corporate societal duty is:“the sense of duty on the portion of companies to construct certain societal standards into their strategic determination making.”Companies should do ethical determinations which will profit the public assistance of the society.
These classs of action should so be included in the organisation ‘s strategic way. Hill and Jones ( 1998 ) believed that being socially responsible is the right manner for companies to act particularly since they need to retain the support of stakeholders. Any divergence from this rule could be opposed by the stakeholders, for illustration, if the community thinks the company is holding an inauspicious consequence on the local environment, they may run against the edifice of new installations.Another position is that corporate societal duty can supply economic benefit to an organisation. Hill and Jones ( 1998 ) cited the work of Edward H. Bowman ( Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania ) who purported that the societal behaviour displayed by a company impacts the monetary value of its stock, benefits the shareholder and attracts investors. Halloway ( 2004 ) supported the claim that corporate societal duty is recognized as an of import direction scheme and this he believed supports the construct of sustainable touristry.The Contributions of Philanthropy Marketing to Socio-Economic Development
The Global Outlook
Bennett ( 1998 ) alluded that corporate philanthropic gift can construct dealingss with stakeholders such as authorities, employees, clients and stockholders.
He believed that this degree of philanthropic gift can better employees ‘ morale and the overall civilization of the organisation ; ease client bonding and keeping ; and creates the opportunity of developing societal contacts. Elms ( 2006 ) added that being corporate responsible can actuate employees. He referred to “Whole Foods” , the universe ‘s largest retail merchant of natural and organic nutrients, where non merely are the clients loyal due to the company ‘s response to the merchandising of organic nutrients, but besides the stockholders and employees. In 2006 this retail shop boasted being rated 15 ( 15 ) on the Fortune ‘s Best Companies to work for.This degree of motive was besides demonstrated by the employees of London Electricity ( LE ) who are engaged in the group staff voluntary programme known as ‘Helping Hands ‘ .
Through this programme, employees are given two yearss paid work clip to be actively involved in community service at both primary and secondary schools, where they engage the pupils in numeracy, literary and interview accomplishments among other countries. These Acts of the Apostless of volunteerism are included in the employees ‘ assessments and calling development programs. This led to a extremely dedicated, team-oriented and responsible work force.
LE is purpose on stand outing in corporate duty with the major aim of bettering its parts to societal and economic issues in footings of instruction, homelessness and regeneration. This push on community development is believed to hold improved its concern public presentation through a extremely motivated staff and patronage ( London Electricity Group, 2003 ) .Bennett ( 1998 ) cited the work of Logan ( 1993 ) whoanalyzed the philanthropic gift patterns of 11 European companies and reported that one of the most dominant grounds for making so is to exhibit moral and societal duty in the operations ‘ locality.Philanthropy was besides exercised by the organisers of the 16th World Travel Awards held in London. They merged their attempts with ‘Just a Drop ‘ , an international charity, to promote individuals go toing the 2009 ceremonial to lend to the clean and safe H2O and sanitation programme, aimed at supplying such agreeableness anyplace around the universe it is needed. This event attracted about one 1000 ( 1000 ) senior direction and determination shapers for the universe travel and touristry industry and besides the one hundred and 20 ( 120 ) Miss World contestants ( World Travel Awards, 2009 ) .Business philanthropic gift seems to be deriving impulse. Based on a research conducted by the British Institute of Public Policy which showed that merely 40 % of touristry concerns discuss societal or environmental issues at the board degree ( comparatively or on occasion ) , the Association of British Travel Agents ( ABTA ) started working with the touristry industry in Britain to develop schemes relevant to sustainable development.
Likewise, the International Hotel Environment Initiative ( IHEI ) is taking at promoting sustainability in over 8000 hotels around the universe ( Holloway, 2004 ) .A recent article published by Emerald Publishing Limited ( 2008 ) entitled ‘Doing it good, but making it good? recorded the findings of a 2007 study conducted by direction consultancy McKinsey. This revealed that since the last five old ages, there has been an addition in the outlooks of concerns taking on public duties. The article besides noted that fund directors will be puting $ 1.00 in ethical issues out of every $ 9.00. The article similarly pointed to other enterprises to include the undermentioned:
- Marks & A ; Spencer have pledged to give 15 thousand ( 15,000 ) kids in Africa a better instruction every bit good as cut down C dioxide emanations by 55,000 tones per twelvemonth ; triple the gross revenues of organic nutrient and convert 20 ( 20 ) million garments to Fairtrade cotton.
- TNT has established an exigency response squad which partnered with the United Nations ( UN ) World Food Programme. One of their many workss included aid after the 2004 Asian tsunami.
- Coca Cola believes H2O saving is paramount and has established a strategy with the Worldwide Fund for Nature ( WWF ) . They have contributed to this cause in topographic points such as India, where the locals believed that they are subjected to H2O extravagance.
- IBM has extended its their philanthropic disbursement to the planetary environment by passing 60 per centum of this budget outside the USA.
- KPMG ( scrutinizing house ) along with comptrollers in the UK, hold given their employees two paid hours each month to transport out voluntary services.
This has been good received by those who participate.
The Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo, Indra Noovi besides advised companies to put in merchandises that make a positive impact on humanity at big ( Emerald Publishing Limited, 2008 ) .
The Jamaican Outlook
The followers are some of the entities outside of the hotel sector that carry out the Acts of the Apostless of philanthropic gift:
Super Plus Food Shops
This major retail shop though no longer in operation, was involved in communitydevelopment by helping educational establishments and community based undertakings. This push was guided by its mission statement, ‘making a positive part to function by being responsible and caring corporate citizen’.In 2004, they contributed J $ 25M to a assortment of undertakings and persons ( The Gleaner, 2005 ) .
Courts Jamaica Limited
This furniture company has been helping local furniture makers by buying their merchandises for resale every bit good as supplying preparation opportunites for them. They have besides contributed to the Walker ‘s Topographic point of Safety for Children, the Red Cross of Jamaica every bit good as the Bustamante Children Hospital ( The Gleaner, 2005 ) .
This telecommunication company has been showing corporate philanthropic gift over the nine old ages of its being. The company believes in ‘touching peoples ‘ lives through voluntary labor ‘ which have been displayed in mentorship activities, school fixs and building, local and regional football sponsorship, the West Indies Cricket squad every bit good as the Particular Olympics squad ( The Gleaner, 2005 ) .
Grace Kennedy and Company Limited
Through the Grace Kennedy Foundation, started in 1978, the environing communities in downtown Kingston are given aid in the countries of young person development ( place work Centres and scholarship ) ; wellness attention ; wealth creative activity ( preparation and concern guidance ) and parental development ( empowerment preparation Sessionss ) .This foundation was established to antagonize the socio-economic conditions embedded in the down countries and is funded by employees, the corporation and grants ( GraceKennedy, 2009 ) .
National Commercial Bank ( NCB )
This fiscal entity has institutionalized a foundation to better the rational capital of Jamaica which thy believed is necessary for socio-economic development. The NCB ‘s Foundation creed is ‘Building a Better Jamaica Together, We Can ‘ .
Contributions include sponsorships to school undertakings and pupils sitting the Caribbean Examination Council ( CXC ) ; and scholarships and grants to secondary and third establishments and school undertakings ( NCB Foundation, 2009 ) .The undermentioned hotels have demonstrated Acts of the Apostless of philanthropic gift geared towards socio-economic development:
Sandals Resort International
Sandals Resort International has been working closely with the environing communities for more than 27 old ages, touting 300 community undertakings. However, in an attempt to incorporate these activities and farther battle the assorted societal and environmental issues they have officially established the Sandals Foundation in 2009 ( Evans, 2009 ) .With the ticket line ….”Educating, Building and Protecting the Caribbean, ” the Sandals Foundation aims at commiting the over 30 old ages of philanthropic engagement in the Caribbean to turn to concerns such as interior metropolis offense and force ; poorness ; underachievement in instruction ; disaffected young person ; unaccessible wellness attention ; and preparation and employment issues ( Sandals Foundation, 2009 ) .The undermentioned as cited by Sandals Foundation ( 2009 ) are some of the specific benevolent activities carried out in Jamaica by the Sandals Resort pudding stone.
These have been categorized harmonizing to community, instruction and environment enterprises and are believed to be brooding of their corporate societal duties:
I ) . Community Initiative to “Uplift, Engage and Empower”
Christmas Toy Drive
‘Help us Bring Joy this Holiday Season! ‘ is the slogan being used to begindividuals to lend playthings and games to the more than 10,000 underprivileged kids being targeted for Christmas 2009. This venture was antecedently done in Jamaica, Antigua, St. Lucia, the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos in 2008 and was reported to be really successful.
The Sandals Foundation have provided oculus attention services to more than 1800occupants in the Whitehouse community in the parish of Westmoreland.
This includes disease testing, spectacless and surgery referrals.
Flanker Peace and Justice Centre in Montego Bay
Aid was provided for the hard-on of this edifice which is being used as a Centre for prep Sessionss and mentorship programmes among other activities such as preparation Sessionss for unskilled young persons from the community, wellness carnivals, environmental consciousness programmes and featuring events among others. These programmes are besides given support.
Other Community Enterprises
These include the constitution of the Animal Shelter in Ocho Rios to supply carnal attention, mentorship programmes to Boys and Girls Home every bit good as schools and support to the aged at Hospices in Westmoreland, St.
James, St. Ann and St. Mary. From an economic base point, there is besides a joint enterprise with the local husbandmans to provide the hotel with agricultural green goods.
two ) . Education Enterprises
With the push of easing entree to instruction, the Sandals Foundation has been engaged in the followers:
Community Scholarship Programme
Over the old ages, the Sandals Resort Company has ever contributed to instruction, but in 2009, it sought to officially set up the Sandals Foundation Community Scholarship Programme. Thirty secondary and third degree pupils were given fiscal aid throughout the Caribbean.
Building for the Culloden Early Childhood Institution
For over 30 old ages this establishment has been runing from assorted locations. They were given a lasting construction to house the over one hundred and eighty ( 180 ) 3 to 6 twelvemonth old pupils.
Other Educational Enterprises
These include book thrusts, following school programmes and mentorship programmes.Prior to the constitution of the Sandals Foundation, philanthropic gift selling was demonstrated by the Sandals / Appliance Traders Group in September 2007, straight after the impact of Hurricane Dean on the island. The school ‘s installation inclusive of the roof, schoolrooms, kitchen and administrative office was devastated. The Sandals / Appliance Traders Group donated one hundred thousand dollars ( $ 100,000.00 ) to the National Baptist Basic School in Trench Town, Kingston to help in fix work ( Robinson, 2007 ) .
three ) .
Marine Protected Area in Ocho Rios
This fish sanctuary was established in October 2009 as it was recognized that the marine country has been impacted by hurricanes, deposit sedimentations, pollution and over-fishing. The purpose of this enterprise is to:Protect and continue the Marine environment which will take to an addition in the resiliency of coral reefs.Better the local economic systems through more efficient fishing activities.There is besides program to set up a marine sanctuary in Whitehouse, Westmoreland.
Negril Recycling Centre
The Sandals Foundation has pledged to assist the Recycling Centre in its attempts to deviate waste stuff from the oceans through public consciousness programmes and accessible roadway that will ease the transit of waste affair to the Centre.
Other Environmental Pushs
These include the edifice and monitoring of reefs, beach cleansing exercisings and activities to acknowledge Earth Day and International Coastal Clean Up Day.Sandals Montego Bay is a certified Green Globe 21 belongings which has received several awards for its committedness to environmental and societal sustainable touristry patterns ( Leon, 2004 ) .In footings of its societal committedness specifically geared towards constructing environmental consciousness, Leon ( 2004 ) noted that Sandals Montego Bay has non merely invited community groups and schools to its environmental expoundings but has besides conducted talks and seminars in schools and in the community. Documentation of its officially established Environmental Management System is besides made available to pupils for information, particularly at the third degree.
The community is besides involved in the cleaning up of beaches and reefs and in tree planting exercisings.These beneficent selling attempts have non been unnoticed. Sandals Montego Bay has been recognized by the Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism ( CAST ) in brotherhood with the Caribbean Hotel Association ( CHA ) for environmental excellence in 2001. In 2002 it was awarded by the Jamaican Government for its Social Outreach and Community Development attempts and besides by the United Nation Environmental Programmes in 2003 for its Social Responsibility programme ( Leon, 2004 ) .
The Palmyra Resort and Spa
The Palmyra, a Solis Resort and Spa is located in Rose Hall, Montego Bay and is deemed to be the trade name ‘s prime Caribbean resort belongings ( Palmyra Resort & A ; Spa, 2009 ) .The Palmyra Foundation was officially launched by Chairperson Kathi Constanzo in 2007.
That twelvemonth, it raised over US $ 100,000.00 which contributed to the 15,000 text editions given to the 2,000 public infant school pupils. This inaugural began at the Montego Bay Infant School, the largest infant school in Jamaica, where 1,000 of the books were given to 4 to 6 twelvemonth old pupils. The school welcomed this gesture as they believed that the deficiency of text edition is a hinderance to larning. The school besides believed that the books will non merely assist the pupils to get down reading, but will let them to larn about the importance of books as ‘education is the cardinal to making a better hereafter ‘ .In 2008, the foundation donated J $ 20.3million / US $ 285,000 in text editions to 10,971 pupils go toing 88 public baby schools.
This amounted to about 50,000 text editions and were distributed free of cost by the Palmyra Foundation. Assistance was provided by more than 40 voluntaries. All operating costs were absorbed by the developers of the Palmyra, Resort and Spa. In December 2008, a benefit concert was hosted in Rose Hall to raise needful financess for the foundation, all of which were used to supply educational tools for the kids. The event was sponsored by the Solis Hotels and Resorts who donated their services to organize the event ( Palmyra Resort & A ; Spa, 2009 ) .
Ritz Carlton Hotel
The Ritz Carlton trade name is internationally recognized and this hotel company is involved in philanthropic activities at each hotel concatenation. The belongings in Jamaica is located in Montego Bay and it continues to lend to the environing communities through:
The Give Back Getaway Programme
This programme encourages invitees to volunteer their clip and endowment throughcommunity services. Some of these activities include the planting of coconut thenars and veggies at the SOS Children Village.
This programme is guided by the first mission of the Ritz Carlton which was designed in 1983 …’The Ritz Carlton Hotel will be known as positive supportive members of their community and will be sensitive to the environment ‘ ( The Ritz Carlton Hotel Company, 2009 ) .
4. Enterprises byOtherLarge Hotels
In an attempt to accomplish economic sustainability through proper environmental patterns, Hedonism II and the Pegasus Hotel had participated in an ‘Environmental Management for Business Leaders ‘ preparation session held in 2006. This programme has assisted them in making sustainable concerns through environmental direction ( The Gleaner, 2006 ) .
Is Philanthropy Marketing Pure Altruism or Business Investment?
Several inquiries have been raised as to the aim of corporate philanthropic gift: is it pure selflessness or concern investing? Hassen and Latiff ( 1999 ) attempted to separate pure charity from what they coined as strategic charity. They noted that pure charity is concerned with parts to instruction, humanistic disciplines and civilization, wellness, societal services and community undertakings while strategic charity is a combination of pure philanthropic gift and activities linked to the concern aims. Strategic charity is deemed as a mechanism that allows a company to fulfill its selfless demands while at the same time doing a net income. This was demonstrated by Warren Buffett, a US billionaire investor.
In 2006 he donated US $ 37Billion to Bill Gates Foundation for aid in socio-economic issues to include wellness and instruction all across the universe.Bennett ( 1998 ) posited that some research workers believed the bulk of corporations carry out echt philanthropic gift. This was verified by Lee ( 1996 ) in Bennett ( 1998 ) in a study conducted with four hundred ( 400 ) donating companies in the United Kingdom. The research showed that the bulk of companies stated that there was no demand to associate their philanthropic activities with the company ‘s merchandises. They did non anticipate any extra net incomes from their philanthropic attempts.Cricks Jr. ( 2005 ) , nevertheless, believed that the aim for the philanthropic gift activities carried out by corporations can run from being selfless to strategic. He cited Porter and Kramer ( 2002 ) who shared that there is an addition usage of philanthropic gift as a corporate scheme.
McAllister and Ferrel ( 2002 ) claimed that there has been a displacement from selfless philanthropic gift to one that is in line with strategic concern aims. They mentioned that under the traditional theoretical account, employees would be encouraged to volunteer without much directive as to where to offer their services. With the emerging theoretical account, benevolent activities are linked to the corporate scheme. They inferred that this could be a agency of battling the impact of retrenchment, competition, divestitures and investor demands.The moralss of concern philanthropic gift seems to be a topical issue. Ricks Jr. ( 2005 ) opined that the strategic philanthropic gift portrayed by most organisations is non truly strategic in puttying community development foremost but may hold some connexion to the selling aims of the corporation.
These are intended to increase visibleness, better corporate image and queer negative promotion.Bennett ( 1998 ) added that corporate contributions could be motivated by factors such as self-interest, strategic tantrum between the receiver and the aims of the organisation, personal penchants and empathy. He cited Williamson and Clark ( 1989 ) as saying that corporate philanthropic gift can do the ‘helper ‘s ‘ temper to go positive and Luks ( 1988 ) as observing that it can ensue in enjoyable emotions gained by the director, inclusive of a sense of composure and enhanced feeling of dignity.Bennett ( 1998 ) chronicledthat philanthropic gift can profit a company by bettering its image, facilitate media coverage, change public attitudes every bit good as support promotional activities. Weeden ( 1998 ) in Genest ( 2005 ) added that the usage of corporate philanthropic gift as a strategic investing is deriving credence and he created the term “corporate societal investing” as a agency of luring organisations to go socially involved by actuating their concern involvement. Roy ( 2004 ) believed societal investing is the logic of associating concern ends and aims to corporate societal duty programmes, which will finally take to spread outing markets, increased portion and productiveness and low production costs.
The above statements sing corporate philanthropic gift as a strategic investing suggest that there is a linkage between the assorted constructs of philanthropic gift and the rules of selling. This was pointed out by Bennett ( 1998 ) who noted that corporate philanthropic gift is perceived as a really of import selling mix component. He claimed that these activities are merchandises that can be marketed to the general populace and should be professionally managed and treated as investings.Similarly, Genest ( 2005 ) perceivedcorporate philanthropic gift as a map of corporate communicating or public dealingss. His justification was that, it is a planned programme of strategic activities geared towards run intoing the overall aims of the corporate communicating programme. This, he believed, is a response to corporate concern scheme which can ease existent duologue between the concern and the community in which it operates. Paul ( 1993 ) in Genest ( 2005 ) deemed that modern-day corporate philanthropic gift is a communicating tool used to place the organisation in the competitory market place.
He posited that this is done to increase net incomes, enhance corporate image, derive competitory advantage, every bit good as strengthen the trueness of employees and clients.Although public dealingss activities help organisations to buildgood dealingss between themselves and the populace, Halloway ( 2004 ) warned that the organisation must “not merely be seen as good but must be good.” He added that sustainable development should non merely be seen as a agency of “winning over the Black Marias and heads of people” but should reflect a cardinal alteration in the attitudes of concerns which was improbable to go on up to a decennary ago.In measuring the function of strategic philanthropic gift in selling, McAlister and Ferrell ( 2002 ) noted that although organisations have longed realized the importance of benevolent philanthropic gift in back uping cardinal stakeholders such as the community, employees and investors, they have merely late formalized this pattern.
They claimed that this is an effort to strategically pull off social issues that will impact selling. Likewise, McAlister and Ford ( 2002 ) believed that the strategic philanthropic gift attack is a blend of organisational and societal demands and hence synergism should be developed between concern and philanthropic activities.In footings of planetary corporate philanthropic gift, Collins ( 1993 ) cited it to be the footing of socially responsible selling, which he believed “is merely late having any significant academic acclaim” ( p.1 ) .Another ethical concern has to make with the issue of cause-related selling. Powell ( 2007 ) stated that this is a part of the monetary value paid by the client that is given to charity and pondered if it is truly beneficent. It is believed that this could be directing the incorrect message to consumers as most times merely a little sum of givers disbursement is contributed to the cause.Hill and Jones ( 1998 ) pointed to another state of affairs posed by Milton Friedman ( Nobel laureate ) who claimed that societal ends should non be the docket of a company since it has to be responsible to its immediate stakeholders such as the employee, clients and shareholders.
His principle is that being socially responsible comes with a cost that has to be paid by the client. He besides believed that the return on investing for the shareholders every bit good as employee wage will be impacted. Friedman noted that every bit long as a company is carry throughing its legal duties, it should merely be utilizing its resources to increase profitableness.On the other manus, Elms ( 2006 ) declared that ifstockholders perceive the concern operation as ethical, they will pay more for stocks. Similarly, he believed consumers will pay more for goods and services provided in an ethical mode. This impression apparently drives the demand for corporate duty which has now become a nucleus pattern in concern operations and will therefore cut down the demand for external ordinance.Holloway ( 2004 ) concluded that corporate societal duty suggests that organisations engage in making good things for the society ( without any concealed docket ) and non merely to their stockholders and clients.The Role of Government in Facilitating, Legislating and Executing Philanthropy Marketing For Sustainable DevelopmentOver the old ages the authorities of Jamaica has implemented certain steps to accomplish sustainable development.
It has encouraged hotel investing in order to recognize socio-economic benefits such as Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) part, employment chances for the occupants, foreign exchange among other grounds In 1968 the Hotels ( Incentive ) Act was legislated with the purpose of promoting hotel investing in Jamaica by easing income revenue enhancement relieve for up to 15 old ages and responsibility grant ( Jamaica Trade and Invest, 2007 ) .Another enterprise established by the authorities in 2003 was the “Partnership for Progress” ( PFP ) . This sought to accomplish a shared vision for a better Jamaica and is a collaborative attempt with the Economic Policy Committee ( EPC ) , the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce ( JCC ) and the Private Sector Organization of Jamaica ( PSOJ ) ( Caribbean Policy Research Institute / CAPRI ( 2009 ) .
This push was based on a “Social Partnership” theoretical account used by the authoritiess of Italy and Barbados to battle their socio-economic challenges. The Social Partnership system is characterized by concerted working relationship ; understandings on policies and programmes and the sharing of duties, resources, hazards and benefits ( Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development / OECD ( 1990 ) cited by CAPRI, 2009 ) .The National Environment and Planning Agency ( NEPA ) was besides established to protect the environment and promote sustainable development. This authorities bureau is responsible for ordaining any statute law and policy that pertains to air and noise pollution, waste H2O intervention, H2O supply and protection and waste direction ( Green Page, 2009 ) .The authorities has besides facilitates developing Sessionss to profit concerns. For illustration, an ‘Environmental Management for Business Leaders ‘ seminar was held in 2006 with the purpose of helping concerns inclusive of the hotel sector to make sustainable concerns through proper environmental direction. This was sponsored by the Jamaica Manufacturers Association ( JMA ) , the National Environmental Protection Agency ( NEPA ) , the Government of Jamaica in coaction with the Caribbean International Development Agency ( CIDA ) , the Environmental Action ( ENACT ) Programme and the Management Institute for National Development ( MIND ) ( The Gleaner, 2006 ) .
Although it may look that there is restriction in the local disposal of philanthropic gift selling, several international organisations have identified the linkage between philanthropic gift and sustainable socio-economic development and have been promoting it global. Some of these are:
The European Commission ( EC )
The EC Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities in 2003 held a conference in Brussels under the subject “Corporate Social Responsibility in Enlarged Europe” . The purpose was to sensitise the European states about the importance of corporate societal duty.
( CSR Europe, 2009 ) .
The European Union ( UN )
The UN has developed a policy known as the UN Global Compact which stipulated 10s universally accepted rules by which organisations are encouraged to aline their operations with. These rules are in the countries of labor, human rights, anti-corruption and the natural environment. ( United Nations Global Compact, 2009 ) .Similarly the United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) encourages the states around the universe to care for the environment in order to continue it for future coevalss ( UNEP, 2009 ) . The UN-WTO Global Code for Ethics in Tourism has besides provided counsel.
The intent of this survey is to research how the big hotels in Jamaica are utilizingphilanthropic gift selling to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica. A comprehensive, but concise literature reappraisal was done, utilizing secondary informations obtained from mentions inclusive of peered reviewed diaries, books, documented information in newspaper and cyberspace beginnings.
Although the topic of involvement may be comprehensive, the subject appears narrow plenty for research as it is inquiring a specific inquiry that the research worker is endeavouring to reply. Initially, the research worker idea of the adjustment sector in general, but this, nevertheless, would be excessively wide as it comprises little, medium and big hotels ; resorts, invitee houses and motels among others ( Dittmer, 2002 ) . Merely one categorization was hence selected.The subject will promote the research procedure in footings of the relationship between the independent variables ( grasp of philanthropic gift selling and big hotels consisting of two hundred and more suites ) and the dependant variable ( socio-economic development ) ( Leedy, 1997 ) . The subject really connotes a construct that the research worker should be able to do several claims on, followed by the appropriate grounds and grounds to back up the claims as suggested by Booth, Colomb and Williams ( 2008 ) .Though narrow, the subject is focused and, hence, will ease equal information and promote logical and analytical authorship.
Choice of Subjects
The topics were the big hotels in Jamaica which were defined as those topographic points of adjustment that have 200 and more suites.
Based on the aforesaid premises, the undermentioned research inquiries were formulated:
- Are the big hotels in Jamaica involved in philanthropic gift selling activities geared at lending to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible?
- What forms of philanthropic gift selling are being used by the big hotels to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica?
- Are the philanthropic gift selling activities carried out by these big hotels pure selflessness or are they concern investings?
- Is the Jamaican authorities facilitating, passing and put to deathing philanthropic gift selling as a agency for sustainable development?
This subdivision of the paper aims to turn out the premises and will be analyzed in footings of the research aims.
1. Are the big hotels in Jamaica involved in philanthropic gift selling activities
geared at lending to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible?Of the figure of big hotels in Jamaica, the literature reviewed alluded to merely three of them that are involved in philanthropic gift selling.
Some of these benevolent activities have been formalized and are being executed by established foundations. This sum could perchance intend that the others are non engaged at all ; non extensively engaged in the pattern or engaged without promotion or formal certification. Not holding a true history of the Numberss of big hotels that are involved in philanthropic gift selling therefore poses a restriction to the survey and presents the chance for it to be farther explored through the study method, utilizing a more significant sample size.
2. What signifiers of philanthropic gift selling are being used by the big hotels to lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica?
Of the hotels cited, merely 2 ( 66 % ) of them ( Sandals and the Palymya Resort ) appear to be extensively involved in philanthropic gift selling that could apparently lend to the socio-economic development of Jamaica in footings of being socially, economically, culturally and environmentally responsible.
This, quantitative description, nevertheless, poses restriction to the survey, since information could be ascertained for merely three ( 3 ) of the hotels. This determination can non be used for generalisation. This suggests the demand to carry on a formal study to obtain primary informations.However, the hotels explored have been involved in and besides encompassed the associated concern benevolent activities such as corporate philanthropic gift alluded to by Paul ( 1993 ) in Genest ( 2005 ) ; planetary corporate philanthropic gift posited by Genest ( 2005 ) ; strategic philanthropic gift postulated by McAlister and Ford ( 2002 ) and corporate societal duty cited by Hill and Jones ( 1998 ) .Despite the footings used to depict the Acts of the Apostless of philanthropic gift selling, it can be deduced that these big hotels have been instrumental in altering and determining the environment in which they operate through aid to instruction as in the instance of Sandals Hotel ‘s part to the Culloden Early Childhood edifice and the Palmyra ‘s Foundation gesture in supplying books to the basic school kids around Jamaica. Sandals has besides been the precursor in supplying environmental consciousness to schools and communities as it has been making this for about three decennaries.
Other countries of part included the aid in agricultural ; substructure development ; environmental protection ; community development through preparation, athleticss and wellness among other enterprises. These beneficent enterprises have been alluded to by Genest ( 2005 ) in the literature reappraisal.Both the Sandals and Palmyra Resort Foundations seem to be engaged in more than one signifiers of philanthropic gift alluded to by ( Ricks Jr. , 2005 ) ; general philanthropic gift which is a response by Sandals to the demand of the Flankers community, which is an developing and dumbly populated country in the Montego Bay part and faced with several socio-economic issues and proactive philanthropic gift, as in the instance of book contributions to the basic schools by the Palmyra Resort Foundation. Sandals appears besides to be involved in reactive philanthropic gift based on their mentorship programmes to the younger coevals and their aid to husbandmans. These premises are based on the literature reviewed and hence demands to be confirmed via an interview procedure so to find if these are truly the purpose of their philanthropic enterprises.It should besides be noted that the benefits to be realized from these Acts of the Apostless of benevolence are non restricted to the stakeholders such as shareholders, employees, clients and the general populace as pointed out by Bennett ( 1998 ) and Elms ( 2006 ) , but they can besides beneficial to the concern through extremely motivated employees who contribute to productiveness as postulated by Hill and Jones ( 1998 ) and demonstrated by the London Electricity Group. This survey was, nevertheless, unable to capture quantitative informations refering to expenditure and additions from these activities.
This could hence be addressed in the future enterprise of the survey.
3. Are the philanthropic gift selling activities carried out by these big hotels pure selflessness or are they concern investings?
The literature reappraisal pointed out that philanthropic gift selling can be Acts of the Apostless of pure selflessness every bit good as that it can be linked to the strategic aim of a company ( Ricks Jr. , 2005 ) . Likewise Roy ( 2004 ) noted that societal investing can ensue in spread outing markets, increased portion and productiveness.
The research, nevertheless, was unable to supply the existent reason/s why these hotels are engaged in philanthropic gift selling. These points to the demand to carry on a study with an appropriate sample size of big hotels in Jamaica to find whether or non their philanthropic activities are pure selflessness or are they linked to their strategic concern aims.It is however, apparent that these hotels can derive acknowledgment and promotion from philanthropic gift selling. For case, Sandal ‘s Montego Bay has received several awards for being socially and environmentally responsible.
4. Is the Jamaican authorities facilitating, passing and put to deathing philanthropic gift
selling as a agency for sustainable development?The literature reviewed was limited in supplying information refering the existent function of the Jamaican authorities in facilitating, passing and put to deathing philanthropic gift selling as a agency for sustainable development.
This therefore warrants farther probe.The survey, nevertheless, highlighted “the Partnership for Progress” ( PFP ) enterprise which aims at accomplishing a shared vision for a better Jamaica. The hotels in Jamaica are believed to be members of the JCC and the PSOJ and this is proposing that they may back up the aims of this programme. This push could apparently make synergism among the populace and private sectors. This survey was besides unable to find the single big hotels that are members of the JCC and PSOJ and who have an involvement in this enterprise ; this information has to be captured in a hereafter survey.
Though the Jamaican state of affairs may look limited in this country of administration, there are several international organisations including the EC programme and the UN ‘s enterprises that have made linkages between philanthropic gift selling and sustainable socio-economic development and are hence encouraging organisations to see this paradigm. The Sandals Montego Bay Hotel, being a receiver of international environmental awards shows that it is adhering to the international criterions. Likewise, other hotels are going more cognizant through preparation chances.
Based on the literature reviewed and the analysis, the undermentioned recommendations are imperative:
- The Jamaican authorities demands to commit or formalise philanthropy selling so that these big hotels are bound by jurisprudence to lend to community development. This could turn to the ‘leakages – linkages ‘ issue where it is believed that hotels are non imparting an equal sum of their grosss or net incomes into community developments but are utilizing it for import payments, expatriate wages every bit good as returning the net incomes to their place states as in the instance of foreign owned-hotels
- This could be regulated through the payment of a fee which could be based on profitableness or room tenancy similar to the caput count of sail ship riders.
- This ordinance is to be included in the Hotel Incentive Act where hotels will be given specific inducement based on the degree of part to society that are non linked to the concern scheme.
- Philanthropy selling must be a portion of the negociating procedure with foreign hotel investors.
- There is besides the demand for more sensitisation in this country in the signifier of forums and seminars.
Not holding a true history of the Numberss of big hotels that are involved in philanthropic gift selling poses a restriction to the survey and therefore nowadayss the chance for it to be farther explored through the study research method with a more significant sample size.
The methodological analysis for the hereafter survey is as follows:
Choice of Subjects
The topics will be categorized as follows:
- Topographic points of adjustment in Jamaica that has 200 or more suites. The research intends to obtain informations from 10 per centum ( 10 % ) of this population. This sample will be selected across the six resort countries in Jamaica: Kingston and the South Coast, Negril, Montego Bay, Runaway Bay, Ocho Rios and Port Antonio.
- Employees at these belongingss
- Community members
Description of Research Instrument
In order to guarantee cogency of the informations and dependability of the research method. a structured questionnaire will be used to roll up the primary informations from the employees and community groups / occupants. This instrument was selected as it is best used to obtain information refering to selling intents, be aftering and policy affairs every bit good as for academic research ( Lucas, 1999 ) . The questionnaire is besides really resourceful in obtaining big sums of quantitative informations in an efficient manner.
The inquiries will be structured so as to guarantee cogency.Face to confront interview will besides be conducted with the hotel troughs to earn pertinent informations relevant to the research inquiries. This will give the interviewer the chance to clear up and reconstitute the inquiries