September 30, 2011 Art 4013 Triumph of Dionysos and the Seasons Sarcophagus The Triumph of Dionysos and the Seasons Sarcophagus was created in 260–270 A. D. At this time it was considered the anarchy period of ancient Rome. This sarcophagus was built in Ancient Rome and is made of marble . Although the creator of this sarcophagus is unknown, it is known that it was made for a wealthy owner.  At the museum this piece of art really stood out to me because it showed a type of realism in it. The carvings on the side made the sarcophagus feel three dimensional unlike most art at the current time that were mostly two dimensional.
It is approximately 7 feet long , 3 feet tall, and made of marble. There is a lot of detail carved into it from the wrinkles in clothing, to the body language, and the mythical elements. The sarcophagus does show the four seasons if the art is looked at closely. It may be showing the joy the person once had on earth during all four seasons that will occur yearly. At the center the god Dinoysos is riding a leopard in which he is known to be symbolized with. Surrounding Dinoysos are four completely naked young men. Usually to symbolize beauty it would have been women instead of young men.
Each man is holding an item that is suppose to represent the four seasons. Carved around the five centric images are Bacchic figures, mother earth, and a bearded man.  Dionysos scenes evoke feelings of celebration, and release from the cares of this world the cult of Dionysos also seemed to offer hope for a pleasurable afterlife. This sarcophagus was made from marble which was probably shipped to Rome from turkey. In order to carve marble it involved a slow, careful chipping away procedure. The materials used to complete such task was a hammer and a chisel.
After the chipping was done, it would have a rough surface. In order to smooth out the rough surface one would use another stone called abrasion to transform the art into a smooth piece.  This was not an easy task as it involved a great deal of patience. This was not a one man job as it is believed to have involved at least seven men to complete the whole sarcophagus.  At this current time period the Romans were building up to be a powerful empire. They captured many cities such as Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt and made them their own.
Greek culture was a big influence in the art of the Romans. This allowed the Romans to combine the Greek art systems with their own. A main art system of the Greeks was their mythology of the gods. The Romans kept that mythology and made it their own. They were very skilled in architecture and designs. Combining the Greek mythology with their own designs made it possible for the Romans to create many great pieces of art with history In them. The roman style was very detailed. They will not make perfect bodies like the Greeks did. They will include flaws in the body such as a long nose, or body weight.
They had many different art styles such as murals painting, architecture, statues, and portraits. Ancient Rome made many advances in their time by building arches, aqueducts, and the Colosseum. It seemed they were always changing themselves to make something no one at that time have seen.  They used art to show the power of the gods and others. They used a sense of optical illusion as their art styles. The first style was painting. They painted the walls to give it a look of a marble stone or copies of Greek decoration. The second was the style of painting something not to like like stone but instead of the earth’s beauty .
They wanted to give a feel as if you were to be looking outside of a window.  The third style was used by architectures on buildings or columns to show realistic detail. This process of showing realistic detail was called “ornamental”. The forth style was a combination of all three styles combined into one.  The third style of showing realistic detail is the style the roman’s used for the season sarcophagus. This was an important style to the sarcophagus because it added the detail that a painting on it will not have shown. Everything is in a three dimensional state rather then two dimensional.
The ancient roman period was a period of great improvements. The roman were skill architectures innovating on past buildings,columns , and arches. Not only were they architectures but they had a good military system capturing most of the land around them. The empire that had a great influence in their art style was the Greek empire. The Romans inherited their Greek mythology and made it their own. They made great pieces of art by the influence of the Greeks. The piece of art that mostly stood out to me was the Triumph of Dionysos and the Seasons Sarcophagus.
It combine good art design with a story behind it. Dionysos was a joyful god surrounded by four men representing the four seasons. Whoever would have been entombed inside the sarcophagus would have been someone who was a joyful person,just as Dionysos symbolized, and enjoyed their time on earth with all four of the seasons. Work Cited “Triumph of Dionysos and the Seasons sarcophagus [Roman] (55. 11. 5)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/55. 11. 5 (October 2009) http://heritage-key. om/rome/marble-sarcophagus-triumph-dionysos-and-seasons http://library. thinkquest. org/23492/data/marble. htm http://teachingcompany. 12. forumer. com/a/2the-art-of-ancient-greece-and-rome_post1081. html Hodge ,Suzie. Ancient Roman Art. Des Plaines, Heinmann Interactive Library, 1998. Hodge ,Suzie. Ancient Roman Art. Des Plaines, Heinmann Interactive Library, 1998. “Michael D. Gunther / www. art-and-archaeology. com” ——————————— [ 1 ]. “Triumph of Dionysos and the Seasons sarcophagus [Roman] (55. 11. 5)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.
New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/works-of-art/55. 11. 5 (October 2009) [ 2 ]. http://heritage-key. com/rome/marble-sarcophagus-triumph-dionysos-and-seasons [ 3 ]. http://library. thinkquest. org/23492/data/marble. htm [ 4 ]. http://teachingcompany. 12. forumer. com/a/2the-art-of-ancient-greece-and-rome_post1081. html [ 5 ]. Hodge ,Suzie. Ancient Roman Art. Des Plaines, Heinmann Interactive Library, 1998. [ 6 ]. Hodge ,Suzie. Ancient Roman Art. Des Plaines, Heinmann Interactive Library, 1998. [ 7 ]. “Michael D. Gunther / www. art-and-archaeology. com”