Understanding Poetry Part 1

Topics: ArtSymbolism

Type:

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Last updated: December 14, 2019

Content
WHAT is being said?

Style
HOW is it being said?

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Lyric Poetry
(Class of Poetry) – Generally spoken by a single voice expressing ideas and emotions

Narrative Poetry
(Class of Poetry)- Includes a narrator and a story.

Epic Poetry
(Class of Poetry)- Narrative; lacking emotion

Dramatic Poetry
(Class of Poetry)- A clearly invented speaker voices the poet’s ideas and sentiments. (Shakespeare wrote dramatic poetry)

Speaker/ Voice
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry)- Frames the words in the poem

Tone, Mood, and Atmosphere
“The overall effect that a poem creates in the mind of the reader is very closely linked to the Mood and Tone it evokes”

Tone
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Atmosphere)- Created by the “voice” of a poem; author’s (or speaker’s) attitude towards subject and/or audience

Mood
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Atmosphere)- Although closely linked to Tone, Mood refers to the atmosphere that the poem creates

Tone v.

Mood

(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Atmosphere)- Though closely related, Tone PRODUCES Mood. Ex. Humorous Tone : Light Atmosphere : : Angry Tone : Atmosphere of Frustration

Diction
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Diction)- The choice of words that affect how Tone is created

Literal/ Denotative
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry)- Natural meaning of a word; Dictionary definition of a word

Connotation
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Diction)- Meaning the word has acquired over history or been assigned by the poet

Register
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Diction)- Think of Register in terms of Formal v. Informal. (Focus on Diction to determine formality)

Archaism
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Diction)- Use of words that are no longer used in modern times

Neologism
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Diction)- Use of words that have been made up.

Like “Refudiate” used by Sarah Palin.

Nouns
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Diction)- Focus on types of Nouns: Concrete v. Abstract

Imagery
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- Images created through the use of Figurative Language or Literal Descriptions

Literal Image
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- An Image created through descriptions. (For Literal Images focus on Diction may be very useful)

Non-Literal Image
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- An Image created through comparisons; Representation of one thing as another. (Figurative Language analysis is most useful when presented with these types of images)

Simile
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- Comparison using “like” or “as”

Metaphor
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance (Dictionary.

com)

Personification
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- the attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions, especially as a rhetorical figure. (Dictionary.com)

Analogy
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- Comparison

Symbolism
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- An Image that represents something else. There must be support beyond simply stating that the image is a symbol. (Historical knowledge, Knowledge of common symbolic meanings attributed to that object, and surrounding Imagery may help you support your claim)

Conceit
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- A type of Metaphor where the poet takes very different things and combines them in a startling way

Hyperbole
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- An obvious and intentional exaggeration; An extravagant statement or figure of speech not intended to be taken literally, as “to wait an eternity.(Dictionary.

com)

Understatement
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- The act or an instance of stating something in restrained terms, or as less than it is. (Dictionary.com)

Metonymy
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- The close association of one word to another so hat one may stand in place for the other

Synechoche
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- A part of something that is meant to represent the whole.

Kenning
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Imagery)- Word or phrase used by Old English poets, that were made up to identify a particular object or thing without naming it directly.Ex. Ocean- Swan’s Road; Foaming Field; Realm of MonstersShip- Sea goer; Sea WoodA Lord- Dispenser of Rings; Treasure GiverThe Sun- Candle of the World

Alliteration
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Aural Imagery)- repetition of a consonant sound.

Assonance
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Aural Imagery)- The use of the same vowel sound with different consonants or the same consonant with different vowels in successive words or stressed syllables.

(Dictionary.com)

Onomatopoeia
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Aural Imagery)- The use of imitative and naturally suggestive words for rhetorical, dramatic, or poetic effect. (Dictionary.com)

Stichic Poetry
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Lines follow on from each other continuously without breaking.

Strophic Poetry
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- The lines are arranged in groups, which are sometimes incorrectly called “verses” (Correct term is “Stanza”); Sonnet, Ballad, Ode, Etc.

Free Verse/ Open Form
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- No constraints of Form, Structure, Rhyme; The flexibility of this form allows poets to use language in whatever way seems appropriate to their purpose, and to create the effects they desire in the work.

Prose Poem
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- A Poem printed as prose and represents the most clear antithesis of fixed form.

Found Poem
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- An unintentional poem discovered in a non-poetic context, such as a conversation, news story, or an advertisement (playful reminders that the words in poems are very often the language we use every day.)

Stanza
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Group of lines, set off by a space; Usually has a set pattern or meter and rhyme

Rhyme Scheme
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Pattern of end Rhymes

Tercet
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Three-line stanza

Triplet
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Three-line stanza where all lines rhyme

Terzarima
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Interlocking three-line rhyme scheme: aba, bcb,cdc,ded, etc.

Quatrain
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Four-line stanza; the most common stanzaic form in English Language

Enjambment (aka Run-On)
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Verse runs from one line to another due to grammatical structure; often punctuation elsewhere in the line reinforces the need to run on at the end of the line

End Stop
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Grammatical break coincides with end of line

Caesura
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- A break or pause in a line of verse; Very important in influencing the rhythm of the poem

Anaphora
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more successive verses, clauses, or sentences.

(Dictionary.com)

Chiasmus
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- A reversal in the order of words in two otherwise parallel phrases, as in “He went to the country, to the town went she.”

Antithesis
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- The placing of a sentence or one of its parts against another to which it is opposed to form a balanced contrast of ideas, as in “Give me liberty or give me death.”; The second sentence or part thus set in opposition, as “or give me death.

” (Dictionary.com)

Apostrophe
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- A digression in the form of an address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea, as “O Death, where is thy sting?” (Dictionary.com)

Zeugma
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- The use of a word to modify or govern two or more words when it is appropriate to only one of them or is appropriate to each but in a different way, as in to wage war and peace or On his fishing trip, he caught three trout and a cold. (Dictionary.

com)

Syntax
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- The sequence in which words are put together to form sentences. In English, the usual sequence is subject, verb, and object. (Dictionary.com)

THE BIG THREE
(Conventions of Meaning in Poetry: Form and Structure)- Spacing, Indentation, Punctuation

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