Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Max Kelly
Last updated: December 20, 2019
Upon arrival to a new country, internationals facedifferent challenges in adjusting to living and learning in their newenvironment. Further, their adjustment problems vary by country of origin, raceand ethnicity, language proficiency, and whether or not they come fromcollectivist or individualist cultures (Constantine, Anderson, Berkel, Caldwell&Utsey, 2005; Surdam& Collins, 1984). The adjustment challenges theyface are: 1) finding living accommodations, the means of obtaining food andother essential items for daily life, and getting appropriate documentation fortheir stay; 2) learning the academic culture including how to interact withfaculty and other students, and different styles of teaching; and 3) making newfriends and developing a new social support system. While the first set ofthese challenges occur during their initial transition, the others may lastlonger. Moreover, given the heterogeneity of the group, language proficiencyand experiences with discrimination may be additional hurdles to overcome forsome internationals. These experiences of adjustment may have an impact oninternationals psychological well-being(Sam,2007)The primary goal of this section is to review the literature on history of Indians andIndian women in Taiwan and to emphasizethe theories that are relevant to Cultural Acculturation, Psychologicalwell-being, and stress. The first part of this study focuses on historyof Indians.
The second part of this studyfocuses on Indian women. Third part of this study focuses on Cultural Acculturation process and itsinfluence on Indian women in Taiwan. Fourth part of this study focuses onPsychological well-being. In last part, the content focuses on stress and itsmoderating effect with cultural acculturation and psychological well-being. Itwill help to find the factor related to Indian women cultural experiences inTaiwan.
History of Indian Immigration to TaiwanIndians have been coming to Taiwansince the 1980s mainly businessmen, jewelers, and scientists. The first Indiansto arrive were a community of Sindhi traders. This community used to have around 200families, but now numbers only 40 or 50 as the majority of them have migratedto China, mainly to Guangzhou. Another similar-sized early group of Indians is made up offamilies in the diamond and precious stones trade who sell their wares toTaiwanese jewelers.As a part of its “Look East” foreign policy, India hassought to cultivate extensive ties with Taiwan in trade and investment as wellas developing cooperation in science & technology, environment issues andpeople-to-people exchanges.
These exchanges have led to a minor influx ofIndians into Taiwan, with small groups of Indian nationals springing up inseveral locations near the country’s larger universities, most notably in Hsinchu and Taipei. Currently, there are almost about 100 Indian scientistsalone at the Academia Sinica. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indians_in_Taiwan).Indian immigrants have been described as anachievement-oriented, ambitious, materialistic, and upwardly mobile group thatplaces a strong emphasis on formal education and individual success.
Inaddition to these self-preserving individualistic traits, Indian society isvery much a collectivistic society. This is evident in the immigrants’ attemptto maintain traditional family values in line with a patriarchal system, with amajor emphasis placed on the sustenance of the extended family, obedience toelders, traditional sex roles, and arranged marriages. This unusual combinationof individualistic and collectivistic traits is the result of years of Britishinfluence in India (Leonard-Spark & Saran, 1980) Indian Women in Taiwan India is a country ofdiversity. In order to understand the acculturation experiences of Indian womenin Taiwan, it is essential to explore the rich diversity of experiences withinthe Indian immigrant population of Taiwan. It is also necessary to have an awarenessof the diversification in religion, family practices, and generational status,and the numerous cultural variations that exist within this immigrantpopulation (Seth,1995). Women’s roles are rooted in the very fabric of Indiansociety, evident in its traditions, religious principles, and practices withinfamilies.Indian women come from a patriarchal andcollectivistic society, and bear the responsibility of holding, teaching, andtransmitting cultural traditions, values, and beliefs to their families(Bhattacharya, 2002).
Family and kinship provide the basis for an Indian woman’sidentity and also facilitate the continuity of culture and religion. The roleof women varies with generation, socioeconomic status, the caste system, andthe level of education. For example, family members often influence thepreservation of cultural traditions and also the decisions surrounding majorlife choices such as education, friendships, and marriage (Saran, 1985). Womenare expected to be dutiful wives, obedient daughters-in-law, and lovingmothers. Women are primarily responsible for household duties, with or withoutanyone’s help. However, in recent times, women have been encouraged by theirfamilies to continue their education and there have been many changes in therole of Indian women.
They can now seek employment as the desire for a betterstandard of living and economic necessity have propelled women to work. Womenhave dual roles, being a housewife and being employed (Gupta, 1999). Indianwomen bring with them the roles, values, beliefs, education, family ideologies,etc. of Indian society. The family system, place of origin, and the roles of casteand religion become serious issues in female development within a society.
Even if Indian women are from more liberal,educated, urbanized, and westernized families, they still carry with them,diluted ‘cultural baggage’ that needs to be reevaluated and renegotiated.Indian immigrant women in transition are much more subject to forces of change thantheir counterparts in India (Naidoo, 2003). Modern Indian immigrant women24find themselves at a crucial junction inchoosing effective ways to acculturate to the individualistic culture of the Taiwan.This study explores the various strategies adopted by Indian women toacculturate to the Taiwanese society (Kankipati, 2012).