Upon on history of Indians and Indian women

Upon arrival to a new country, internationals face
different challenges in adjusting to living and learning in their new
environment. Further, their adjustment problems vary by country of origin, race
and ethnicity, language proficiency, and whether or not they come from
collectivist or individualist cultures (Constantine, Anderson, Berkel, Caldwell
&Utsey, 2005; Surdam& Collins, 1984). The adjustment challenges they
face are: 1) finding living accommodations, the means of obtaining food and
other essential items for daily life, and getting appropriate documentation for
their stay; 2) learning the academic culture including how to interact with
faculty and other students, and different styles of teaching; and 3) making new
friends and developing a new social support system. While the first set of
these challenges occur during their initial transition, the others may last
longer. Moreover, given the heterogeneity of the group, language proficiency
and experiences with discrimination may be additional hurdles to overcome for
some internationals. These experiences of adjustment may have an impact on
internationals psychological well-being(Sam,2007)

The primary goal of this section is to review the literature on history of Indians and
Indian women in Taiwan and to emphasize
the theories that are relevant to Cultural Acculturation, Psychological
well-being, and stress. The first part of this study focuses on history
of Indians. The second part of this study
focuses on Indian women. Third part of this study focuses on Cultural Acculturation process and its
influence on Indian women in Taiwan. Fourth part of this study focuses on
Psychological well-being. In last part, the content focuses on stress and its
moderating effect with cultural acculturation and psychological well-being. It
will help to find the factor related to Indian women cultural experiences in

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History of Indian Immigration to Taiwan

Indians have been coming to Taiwan
since the 1980s mainly businessmen, jewelers, and scientists. The first Indians
to arrive were a community of Sindhi traders. This community used to have around 200
families, but now numbers only 40 or 50 as the majority of them have migrated
to China, mainly to Guangzhou. Another similar-sized early group of Indians is made up of
families in the diamond and precious stones trade who sell their wares to
Taiwanese jewelers.

As a part of its “Look East” foreign policy, India has
sought to cultivate extensive ties with Taiwan in trade and investment as well
as developing cooperation in science & technology, environment issues and
people-to-people exchanges. These exchanges have led to a minor influx of
Indians into Taiwan, with small groups of Indian nationals springing up in
several locations near the country’s larger universities, most notably in Hsinchu and Taipei. Currently, there are almost about 100 Indian scientists
alone at the Academia Sinica.   


Indian immigrants have been described as an
achievement-oriented, ambitious, materialistic, and upwardly mobile group that
places a strong emphasis on formal education and individual success. In
addition to these self-preserving individualistic traits, Indian society is
very much a collectivistic society. This is evident in the immigrants’ attempt
to maintain traditional family values in line with a patriarchal system, with a
major emphasis placed on the sustenance of the extended family, obedience to
elders, traditional sex roles, and arranged marriages. This unusual combination
of individualistic and collectivistic traits is the result of years of British
influence in India (Leonard-Spark & Saran, 1980)







Indian Women in Taiwan


            India is a country of
diversity. In order to understand the acculturation experiences of Indian women
in Taiwan, it is essential to explore the rich diversity of experiences within
the Indian immigrant population of Taiwan. It is also necessary to have an awareness
of the diversification in religion, family practices, and generational status,
and the numerous cultural variations that exist within this immigrant
population (Seth,1995). Women’s roles are rooted in the very fabric of Indian
society, evident in its traditions, religious principles, and practices within

Indian women come from a patriarchal and
collectivistic society, and bear the responsibility of holding, teaching, and
transmitting cultural traditions, values, and beliefs to their families
(Bhattacharya, 2002). Family and kinship provide the basis for an Indian woman’s
identity and also facilitate the continuity of culture and religion. The role
of women varies with generation, socioeconomic status, the caste system, and
the level of education. For example, family members often influence the
preservation of cultural traditions and also the decisions surrounding major
life choices such as education, friendships, and marriage (Saran, 1985). Women
are expected to be dutiful wives, obedient daughters-in-law, and loving
mothers. Women are primarily responsible for household duties, with or without
anyone’s help. However, in recent times, women have been encouraged by their
families to continue their education and there have been many changes in the
role of Indian women. They can now seek employment as the desire for a better
standard of living and economic necessity have propelled women to work. Women
have dual roles, being a housewife and being employed (Gupta, 1999). Indian
women bring with them the roles, values, beliefs, education, family ideologies,
etc. of Indian society. The family system, place of origin, and the roles of caste
and religion become serious issues in female development within a society.  Even if Indian women are from more liberal,
educated, urbanized, and westernized families, they still carry with them,
diluted ‘cultural baggage’ that needs to be reevaluated and renegotiated.
Indian immigrant women in transition are much more subject to forces of change than
their counterparts in India (Naidoo, 2003). 
Modern Indian immigrant women24find themselves at a crucial junction in
choosing effective ways to acculturate to the individualistic culture of the Taiwan.
This study explores the various strategies adopted by Indian women to
acculturate to the Taiwanese society (Kankipati, 2012).


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