USA: ?On September 20, 1950, a US Navy ship

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Last updated: July 27, 2019

USA: ?On September 20, 1950, a US Navy ship just off the coast of San Franciscoused a giant tube to spray a cloud of microbes into the air and into the city’s famousfog. The military was testing how a biological weapon attack would affect the800,000 residents of the city.The people of San Francisco had no idea of this.

The military tested how a biological or chemical weapon would spread throughoutthe country by spraying bacteria as well as various chemical powders, including anespecially controversial one called zinc cadmium sulfide.These sprays were testedon the ground too, with machines that would release clouds from city rooftops orintersections to see how they spread.To prevent suspicion, the military pretendedthat they were testing a way to mask the whole city in order to protect it. They toldcity officials that “the tests involved efforts to measure ability to lay smoke screensabout the city” to “hide” it in case of nuclear attack.Russia:During the siege of Caffa, a well-fortified Genoese-controlled seaport, in 1346, theattacking Tartar force experienced an epidemic of plague.

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The Tartars, however,converted their misfortune into an opportunity by throwing the cadavers of theirdeceased into the city, thus initiating a plague epidemic in the city.?The plague pandemic, also known as the Black Death, swept through Europe, theNear East, and North Africa in the 14th century and was probably the mostdevastating public health disaster in recorded history.Plague was transmitted to the citizens of Caffa by the throwing of diseased cadaversinto the surrounded city, and Italians escaping from Caffa brought the plague into theMediterranean seaports.However, given the complex ecology and epidemiology of plague, it may be an easyto assume that a single biological attack was the sole cause of the plague epidemicin Caffa and even the 14th-century plague pandemic in Europe.China:China is a party to the major international agreements regulating biological weapons,having acceded to the Geneva Protocol in 1952 and the Biological and ToxinWeapons Convention (BTWC) in 1984.

China was a victim of large-scale biologicalwarfare (BW) attacks during the Japanese occupation from 1937 to 1945, heavilyinfluencing its later nonproliferation efforts.China has consistently maintained that it does not have an offensive BW program.Past reports by the U.S. departments of State and Defense have said that Chinamaintained a small-scale offensive biological weapons program even after joining theBTWC, and that Chinese entities have transferred controlled biologicalweapons-related items to nations of proliferation concern, such as Iran.

Beijing has repeatedly stated in formal documents, official speeches, and defensewhite papers that China has never developed biological weapons and does notcurrently engage in biological activities with offensive military applications.France?:France developed biological and chemical weapons during World War I, andrestarted these programs during the 1930s, it has ceased activities in both areas. Itpossesses a limited but diverse missile program. France has been a target ofbombings by groups such as ISIS, Manuel Valls warned that the ISIS was going toget armed with some chemical and biological weapons to attack Europe in the future,because France was in serious problems of threats. Manuel Valls has warned hiscountry to be prepared for chemical and biological attacks as he told to the MinistryOf Public Security (MPS) that the imagination of ISIS is ‘limitless’. Manuel Valls madethe ominous prediction while calling on French MPS to extend the country’s state ofemergency for another three months, amid fears another attack is imminent. Thewarning comes as U.

S. security officials report that they have found proof that ISIS isdeveloping biological weapons with the help of Syrian and Iraqi scientists in theMiddle East. His warning came shortly before it was confirmed that the suspectedengineer of last week’s Paris attacks was killed in the police raid of an apartmentnorth of the capital.UK:The British government has progressively reduced its nuclear weapons stockpile,with the latest reduction announced in the 2010 Strategic Defense and SecurityReview (SDSR). Though it once possessed biological and chemical warfareprograms, the United Kingdom ended both programs in the mid to late 1950s. Itslimited missile program is now composed entirely of sea-launched missiles.

Beginning in 1934, the United Kingdom weaponized anthrax and conducted researchon botulinum toxin and the pathogens that cause plague and typhoid fever. By thelate 1950s, the United Kingdom no longer had an offensive biological weaponsprogram, although its defensive biological program remains strong today. Londonratified the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in March 1975, and is amember of the Australia Group, an export control mechanism for chemical andbiological weapons.

On March 28, 2005, the United Kingdom, the United States, andRussia issued a joint statement affirming their support for the Biological WarfareConvention (BTWC) and called on all remaining countries not party to the Biologicaland Toxin Weapons Convention to implement and comply with the convention.India:India has ratified the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and pledges toabide by its obligations. There is no clear evidence, circumstantial or otherwise, thatdirectly points toward an offensive Biological Warfare (BW) program. India hasdefensive BW capabilities and has conducted research on countering variousdiseases. India also has an extensive and advanced dual-use pharmaceuticalindustry.

New Delhi possesses the scientific capability and infrastructure to launchan offensive BW program, but does not appear to have chosen to do so. In terms ofdelivery, India also possesses the capability to produce aerosols and has numerouspotential delivery systems ranging from crop dusters to sophisticated ballisticmissiles. However, no information exists in the public domain suggesting interest bythe Indian government in delivery of biological agents by these or any other means.India’s biotechnology industry is rapidly expanding through its extensive andadvanced dual-use pharmaceutical industry. Ensuring the security andstandardization of theinstitutions and the facilities that handle biological materials remains a challenge.III. Conclusion:The war with biological weapons has caused many diseases and deaths in thesoldiers who have gone to fight, but there are different types of weapons for examplethose that hat do not kill you at that moment but they kill you over time. Theseweapons are very dangerous and even after all that has happened with theseweapons there are too many countries that still build them because they are toostrong and powerful.

The choice of the biowarfare agent depends on the economic,technical, and financial capabilities of the state or organization. Biowarfare attacksare now a possibility. The medical community as well as the public should becomefamiliar with epidemiology and control measures to increase the likelihood of a calmand reasoned response if an outbreak should occur.

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