Virtue isa skill and way of living that one can discern through experience as well as anessence of knowledge or wisdom tending to issue in an action of good and within conformity develop a unity among virtuessuch as wisdom, temperance, courage, justice, andpiety. One interpretation regards the mutual entailment of the virtue goesagainst the idea of virtues being fragmentary in a person such as one cannotjust have a virtue. In order to manifest any virtue, one must manifest othervirtuous traits which suggest an idea of inseparability and completeness. Theconcept of it is all the virtues are connected and obtaining one implies havinga moral character that communicates the other virtues.
There is a golden meanwithin virtue that suggest the right amount of the mean is a good thing and adeficiency or an excess amount of a trait is vice. For instance, deficiency incourage shows cowardice and excess arereckless which are like folly because they are vices. Courage in the rightamount is a virtue but it does not just stand alone due to virtue being aknowledge. Courage involves practical wisdom because, without wisdom, one would end up in reckless or in cowardlypositions. When caught in a situationlike that the idea is about not just jumping to conclusions but know what to inthe right circumstance and acting upon that instinct so it is neither recklessor cowardly.
The actions to withstand fears require a thought process to havegood in the end. Virtuemeasures the value and impact of one’slife which may relate to the ideal ofhuman perfection. It seems human perfection is a moral character that attains all the virtues and people withdispositions as such are rare. The concept of virtue as an ideal of humanperfection constitutes a fully good life or the best life. The best life mostlikely means a person exemplifying virtuous behavior and the excellence ofgoodness. The best life a person can live involving all virtues supports theunity of virtues thesis. The virtues act upon each other to mutually adjust anddetermine each other in a mechanism. The theory of one virtue implying all theothers is questioned due to the outlook of one.
Adams disagrees saying he doesnot believe in the complete human virtue aspect, the concept of a fully goodlife because that leads to the concept of Eudaimonia which is human flourishingand the idea that one can always be improved and that their work on a virtuousis never done and a fully good life may not support that suggestion. With theimplication of interconnected virtues, the more one person attains of a virtuewould mean they also attain more of the other which puts a value and measure ofvirtues saying that all are equal. That suggests a type of balance that wouldcontinue to be altered because of theidea that improvement in virtuousbehavior is never finished. Adam’s example of the three men involved in theGerman Auschwitz concentration camp commit actions that question their moral good character. With one man participating inthe murders of Jews as well as ways to kill them but advocated for betterhealth care, the second man not partaking in any acts of the mass murder butstill maintain his friendly relationships with the people guilty of those actsand the final man partaking in acts to save and Jews as well as workingundercover in the camp to betray the Nazis he hated but had problems such asinfidelity.
This interpretation of the virtues of unity would automaticallyrequire people to be well-rounded people, but it is difficult to question theircharacter and say if they are morally good people. The example rather suggests that the menhaving a virtue whether it be kindness or courage, the men seem to havedeficiencies. The third man may have good intentions, but it is very obviousthat he lacks honesty and integrity seeing that he deceived the people heworked with. The second man lacks good judgment or wisdom despite showingloyalty to his colleagues and the first man’s actions are overall questionablebecause he does goodness by adding to the healthcare but that did not stop himfrom participating in the murders. One cannot be perfect unless they manage theperfection of the virtues to a similar and high standard. The virtues in regardto the three men differ in a degree whichwould question the idea of a completehuman virtue.
Another aspect of thetheory of the unity of virtues is the virtues being the distinct facets of awhole. The meaning comes across different virtues coming together in a moralcharacter to develop virtuous behavior and each virtue being formulated by a distinctknowledge would add to its moral work. Socrates happens to reject the thesis ofvirtues being distinct parts of a whole and implications on one another andsuggest that different virtues are the same and are just different names addedon to virtues which mean the same thing. For instance, piety which is a virtuewith segments of humility, love towards others as well as in a religious aspecttowards God.
Piety is thought of as a form of justice because it permits peopleto perform commitments and moralimperatives towards others as well as doing what is perceived as good and rightin the sight of God. Justice having many forms such as justice of equality,need-based justice, and merit-basedjustice. Piety seems to have relation to the positive rights which impliesobligation. The obligation would refer to actions that help other people and isa good towards society. Not only does it help others but in terms of piety,many would see those actions as right in the sight of God. Justice and piety relatedin regards to fulfilling obligations ofgood towards humanity and God.
A theory ofvirtues being one and the same is that a virtue is a persisting excellence of being for the good. The good is whatbenefits society and in their own ways,each virtue works towards the good of society. The different terms used uponvirtues could be the different aspects of each function of the good of others. Socrates’s theory could be hard to grasp theidea of human flourishing because in one view the idea that all virtues are thesame question moral character. Technically, since improvement is never finishedthe person may not necessarily exemplify virtuous character.
To have adisposition that is virtuous one may copy others who have better moralcharacter due to the development of character through habituation and as onecontinues to emulate other the virtue becomes a part of their character. Notexemplifying one virtue could mean that one’s character is not virtuous sincethey would be the same. As a society, we may not be able to emulate other’scharacter because they are not virtuous enough. Others who disagree with Socrates’ thesis saythat the virtues should have their own definitions, and the virtues areconnected by Interentailment. The foundations ofa stoic account virtue are Interentailment, Motivational monism and Knowledgepremise which may stem from the idea of a soul being one faculty and from awhole they suggest that the virtues should be singular rather than mergedtogether.
The similitude idea of virtues can be an interesting topic uponvirtue, but it conveys the message of either having virtuous character or notand limits Eudaimonia. Pluralism in virtue is the idea ofmultiplicity within beliefs in what is good. Moral pluralism holds the middle ground between moral absolutism whichproclaims the idea of a universal set of moral principles used to judge othersand the opposing view of moral relativism which suggest the absence of a set ofmoral principles. Moral pluralism gives the idea of being open-mindeddiscordant opinions and outlooks and introduces character traits of virtue thatare embedded in good forms of moral acknowledgmentsuch promotion of value, the bonding and attachments in association touniversal love and self-love, showing respect towards people, authority,opinions, and modes of creativity.Plurality refers to the central feature of action allowing a person to makethemselves known through their actions which are primarily emblematic insustaining interactions and relationships such in the ideas of speech entailsaction and action entail speech.
Equalityand distinction are concepts that enable different perceptions of people. Bythe virtue of plurality, a person is able of acting and relation on unique anddistinct perceptions providing a networkof intricate activity and relationships to develop where people relate whichwould be for the excellence of the good. Plural virtues could include classes ofvirtues with the first being minor virtues which are enhancing to one’s moralcharacter but if a person were to lack them, it may not be considered adeficiency. For a virtue to plural adds a trait that is perceptive but alsorespective to other opinions and beliefs across many subjects. Examples such asfriendliness and playfulness would be traits that add to one’s good characterbecause people view friendless as a trait that positive, genuine and nothypocritical aspect and playfulness makes others appreciate someone’s processthought and value of things, however, ifa person became introverted or exhibited traits of dullness, seriousness, and solemnity, it can be hardly seen asimpairment on a person’s character.
The minor virtues would express pluralitybecause the traits are positives in human interactions, actions for the goodand add to one’s character for other’s perceptions. The second class involvesvocations which are single and distinct ways of a person to be for the good “interms of goods that one is given to love, and that one does love” (Adams p.202). Adam’s example of the Frenchman having conflictedthoughts on choosing between resisting a tyrannical monarch or ruler and beingloyal to his family which shows compatibility with perception and values. Theirreducible plurality implies incommensurability in that the decision-making processthe two options which worrisome to the person, resistance or loyalty, cannot be necessarily ranked but involvescultivation and the multiplex of other virtues because they cannot be minimized to common reason.Subjectivisms is a huge concept in virtues that are plural due to them notbeing a part of everyone’s vocation such as the virtue of generosity ormagnificence due to vocations being an individual thing. Pluralism opposes theidea of value monism which proclaims a single type of value and the varyingtypes of pluralism say they can conflict with each other. The precision of expressionand art may not be as valued or thought of in similar aspect to that ofphilosophers and poets.
There are other concepts of pluralism besides moralwhich can include intellectual pluralism, a politicalpluralism which entail other values stemming from different cultural, beliefand environmental systems. The plurality of virtue involves respect forothers and the practice of a system of conventional social rituals can be anexcellence for the good for others to acquire which can be considered minorvirtues such as politeness. Politeness is also used in a cultural context aswell as devotion to God and reverence regarding a theistic context andreligious rituals. Adams describes the way of virtue as not “strait and narrowas the path of duty” (Adams p.
206) which conveys the subjective aspect ofplural virtues regarding values. Virtues being plural are about how peoplecultivate virtues in decisions regarding their values whether it may applysocially or culturally because beliefs and perceptions vary to people butdespite values being individual to every person there is still good intended inthe end. To integrate is to unify or combine multiplethings in becoming one which could entail the unity of virtue thesis in whichone virtue implicated all the other virtues. Integration has multiple formssuch as personal integration, moral integration, fundamental integration,theoretical integration, ethical integration and self-integration which arerelated to integrity.
Integrity is regarded as the mother of all virtues anddefined as a fundamental moral virtue and bedrock which good character isformed and the connection between ethical and moral action. Integrity is regardingthose who adhere to a code of moral values as well as uphold volitionalexpectations through actions of accepting, comprehending and choosing to live inaccordance with one’s principles and values. Integrity is thought of inrelation to the quality of a person’s moral character and how true they are totheir commitments, intentions, beliefs, values, relations and other aspects. Moralintegration is defined by Adams as a sort of unity of Virtue and Virtue is thecombination of virtues as well as the quality of a person’s life regarding whatdegree they exhibit virtuous character and concerns relating to excellence and values supported by wisdom andsensitivity. A virtuebeing integrated would mean the inconsistency and consistency in a person’smoral values and principles. A person instead of acting inconsistently byfacing one situation by acting with a set of moral values and principles andfacing another type scenario without those same values or principles. Forinstance, if one is in a competition and they lose, and they express humilityor behavior that would indicate them being a good sport, and in anothersituation taking place in a classroom with them getting a grade they considermediocre those values of humility would be thrown out the window and theyexpress arrogance and pride as well as anger. This example would be related tothe concept of compartmentalization regarding the confinement of feelings,values to certain situations, relationships and spheres of activity and leadsto an increase of the integration of moral character, integration becomingconsistently vicious or even virtuous directions.
Inner conflicted feelingsstemming the values and principles from the separate moral compartments inregard to business corporations, education, families, religious institutionsand friends support different central aims, codes, and types of relationships are main parts of integration and canlead to successful integration if resolved in proper context. The conceptof a virtue being integrated would mean how the values and principlesincorporated with virtue into a person’s character affect its consistency ofbeing for the good. Moral integration can be thought of a structural virtuewhich is the organization of a motivational virtue and the ability andwillingness for someone to govern themselves in agreement with values,commitments, and beliefs in good. A virtuethat is morally integrated would mean people possessing the virtue has psychicstrength to use their principles, commitments, judgment,and values in situations regarding theiractions for the good of society. Integration could convey that a person thathas a virtuous view that is not narrow inits response to the excellence for the good stretching to cognitive, affectiveand behavior areas. An integrated virtue would require all aspects fromdifferent areas in which person exhibits virtuous behavior and right action whichdoes not just have to be moral integration as well as applying the idea of relatingmultiple core values and traits within a virtue for the goods which areobjective. Integration implies an idea of togetherness which may also meanadding in other aspects that would apply to other virtues such as adding whatis applicable to humility or generosity towards courage or practical wisdom.
Integratedvirtues to be less based on other’s desires and preferences on goods andchanges such as sensitivity or learning are threats to integration because ofits moral significance. Morality in integration may not be a such a big conceptin integration because virtues regarding morality are for good of others andintegration is objective focusing generally on everyone. The idea ofreasonableness which takes people’s outlooks and interest and tries toincorporate them fairly would be an integrated virtue taking into account othervalues, principles, cognitive, affective and behavioral states making thevirtue as objective in the excellence for being for human good rather than justone way being the right and good way towards moral goodness.
PART II The life projectwould be centered around how our values, principles and judgment influence ouractions towards the future, our outlook on the future and how they are for thegood. The virtues that are shown in my character affect my values andjudgement. For instance, if I had more of a courageous and positive viewpointon life that may affect