of Communicative Language Teaching
for large number of students
CLT approach is not suitable for a large number of
students.Each student comes from different cultural backgrounds and
language.Teachers will not be able to handle the needs of each student when the
number of student increases.This will also inflate the teacher’s workload.This
results in poor feedback given to each student.This is where aberration is
ommited when there is no evaluation given to students by teachers.Teachers
should be fluent in target language and native language.This is because each
student has different languages (NL).Teachers need to explain to students in
their native language so that they could understand better.However, students
should make an effort to learn and practice their target language.
Researchers claim that 58% admits that CLT gives
more importance towards fluency but inaccurate.In this approach, learners use
their innate knowledge which might be correct or incorrect to solve their
communication conflicts in reality.This leads to leaners outcome in a production
of gramatically false sentences, pronounciation, spelling and etc.For an
example “I goes to school by bus every morning”.The learner might pronounce the
words correctly but the usage of grammar is poor.If error correction is absent,
then the learner might use ‘goes’ instead of ‘go’ in both present and past
towards connotation(meaning) and rules
This CLT gives importance to meaning and rules than
grammar rules.CLT is a concern in oral production such as speaking and
listening than reading and writting (Production).It is very true that children
learn a language through interaction at a fast rate but nowdays demands of
English are global in accuracy.The production of language is now measured how
learners speak English fluently as well as acurately with the correct formula
of grammar and rules.
in level of performance
Burnaby and Sun (1989) pointed that it is crucial to
implement CLT in classroom especially for foreign students (EFL).The only input
for (EFL) students are learning their target language in a classroom with the
help of teachers. For an example, a Japanese from Japan wants to learn English
as his or her L2 in their own country
(Japan). S/he has only an opportunity to learn and speak English in their
particular English classes.They are not able to practice and interact with the
society.This is because Japanese is a dominant language in Japan.The implementation
in (CLT) decreaces because the learner is unable to communicate effectively in
their L2.This instantly effects the student’s motivation that results in the
learners to capitulate in L2.It is more adequate for L2 learners to learn their
target language in a country where students L2 is a dominant language in a
Consider that a classroom has 50 students. How is it
possible for a teacher to monitor each students assesment and performance. It
is possible, but the possibilities are quite slim and this is time consuming as
well. Some teachers monitor excellent students who are proficent in
communication skills while neglets the weaker students. The weaker students
somehow try to communicate using their innate knowledge to grasp teachers
attention. To solve this matter teachers should group students not according to
the level of performance. For an example, teachers should group excellent
students with the weaker ones.This can improve students monitoring. If the
students are still not comfortable with groupings then it is best for teachers
to consult students. Feedback is very adequate for monitoring. This helps
students to identify their mistakes and perform better in communication.
Feedback and comments should be provided to students after their performance
for a better improvement in CLT.
Principle in Communicative Language Teaching.
Activities based on CLT are related and involves
real life communication. CLT promotes learners to communicate in daily life.
Language is a tool to communicate effectively. Learners should learn the language
in hand to interact with others. Activities that are involved in real life
communication are role play, interviews, mock teaching and etc.
Through communication, learners should try to
communicate according to the task given. This promotes learners towards
meaningful tasks. Students should participate to gain the benefits through CLT.
For an example, the task given is to conduct a consultation sessions in target
language. However, some students struggle to communicate in TL during task
based activity but the end product is going to surprise them as well. Teachers
should keep on implementing strategies for an excellent communication skills.
in Communicative Language Teaching
competence is the aim of CLT.
and accuracy is the essential goal.
depend upon associating with different people.
in Communicative Language Teaching.
Grammatical Competence alternately what Savignon
(1983) called as the semantic structure of a dialect. This includes the ability
to use vocabulary, spelling, syntax, sentence structures and most importantly
grammar in production of communication.
Sociolinguistic is a skill to comprehend in a social
context.Learners are able to use L2 in real life communication.
The capacity for associating words, phrases, grammar
and vocabulary to construct a stretch of sentences.
Comprehension is the use of verbal and non-verbal
communication.Strategic competence incorporates in adapting methodologies, with
initiating conversation, concluding, cultivate and repair communication. For an
example, to repair breakdown in a communication channel that interupts
communication to be heared and received effectively.
of Teachers in Communicative Language Teaching
The aspect of teachers is branched into two
elements.The primary role is to encourage the communication process within all
students in classroom.The second element is to go as an autonomous member of learning
and teaching group.It is important for teachers to develop exciting activities
for students to learn L2.
Teachers execute as a facilitator, resourceful
person and act as a model for L2 classroom.Teachers should create positive and
ancillary environment.Healthy atmosphere in classroom advances risk taking and
enable students to attempt error and trial experiments.Positive attitudes in
(CLT) classroom prompt an amazing disposition towards dialact and culture.
From teachers centered it moves to students centered.Students
control the classroom and do the vast majority of talking.The educators will
encourage, exhort, aid and show direction.Teachers observe to provide feedback
and comments to students if they are incorrect to hinder breakdown of language
communication in future.
of Student in Communicative Language Thinking
In regard to the learners role, Attkins et (1996)
characterized the understudies in an interaction based classroom whereby
students do most of the talking and they act as an active learners. Moreover,
all the students should collaborate to establish a reciprocal learning
enviroment.There are some requirement and responsibilities by the students that
should be taken in accord such as interdependence, unique accountability,
promote in interaction and group processing.
Positive interdependence is a measure where students
coordinate together to accomplish their task. However, this also needs full
participation among the team members. The compatible environment increases the
These elements involves each students to bestow
their work together. Each students should be given specific task according to
their level of knowledge.
CLT promotes interaction among students. Even though
students are not able to communicate grammatically correct but the meaning is
still understandable. This restore students to communicate with others.
the ways on how to use the language for different purposes and functions.
This objective shows
that the student has mastered how to use the language when their speaking for
different purposes and functions. For example, if the person is using the
language is to attend a job interview, then the use of the language must be
formal. The use of language must always be suitable for its context of speech
and the purpose of speech. This is because when a person uses the wrong usage
of words or phrases for any functions, it can deliver a wrong message.
the ways on how to vary our use of language according settings and
Different types of
audiences are addressed differently according to classification of speech
styles. Speech styles are divided into five levels of formality which have been
identified by Martin Joos (1967).
style is used in public speaking or debates before a large audience which may
vary in age. The words used in this style must be planned carefully to suit the
topic that is chosen by the speaker. There must be exaggerated intonation to
emphasize on key points and purpose of speech. The speaker can use rhetorical
devices like hyperbole and metaphor to make their speech more meaningful and to
deliver their message clearly.
style is use to address audience which may vary in age in a two way
communication style. In this style there is one person who would be delivering
the information and also asking and receiving questions from the audience. This
type of style is not thoroughly planned and can be impromptu. For example, a
lecturer teaching in a university classroom.
style is in the form of dialog which is formal. The words must be carefully
chosen with care and thought before speaking. For example, a meeting to sign an
agreement for a business transaction or a doctor-patient conversation.
style is use when communicating with friends, families and colleagues. The
social barriers are low because the words used are not necessarily to be
thought before speaking.
style is used when talking with family, loved ones and close friends. The inner
self is revealed because we feel safe around them and they know about us well
how to produce and understand different types of texts.
This objective shows the importance on how to
produce different texts for different purposes. For example, when sending a
resume for a job interview, the letter must be written formally. Other than
that, when writing an essay the words and phrases must be logic with the topic chosen.
The student must also be able to understand a text that is being read to be
able to get the information from the text.
how to maintain a conversation.
To be able to achieve
this goal, the student must be able to know all the rules of grammar and speak
fluently in the language. The student must also be able to know how and what to
speak in different situations. A student who is fluent in the language will be
able to keep the conversation going by thinking of new topics and questions.
makes sure the learners use the language accurately and appropriately. This
means the student must learn the rules of grammar, speak the language fluently
teaching method is student centred which means while teaching the focus are on
the students and the teacher is the facilitator. The teacher will guide the
students when they have difficulty. Students will have active participation in
class for the activities conducted.
activities are encouraged in this teaching method to allow students to interact
with each other and allow information sharing. More group activities will be
given to allow cooperation to enhance their communication skills.
method focuses on real world contexts. This will give an exposure to students
on how to communicate with others in different context. For example, by giving
impromptu topics for speech exercises for the students.