Type: Evaluation Essays
Sample donated: Kerry Thomas
Last updated: May 23, 2019
Weaknessof Communicative Language Teaching Non-applicablefor large number of students CLT approach is not suitable for a large number ofstudents.Each student comes from different cultural backgrounds andlanguage.Teachers will not be able to handle the needs of each student when thenumber of student increases.This will also inflate the teacher’s workload.Thisresults in poor feedback given to each student.
This is where aberration isommited when there is no evaluation given to students by teachers.Teachersshould be fluent in target language and native language.This is because eachstudent has different languages (NL).Teachers need to explain to students intheir native language so that they could understand better.However, studentsshould make an effort to learn and practice their target language. “Fluent”but “inaccurate”Researchers claim that 58% admits that CLT givesmore importance towards fluency but inaccurate.In this approach, learners usetheir innate knowledge which might be correct or incorrect to solve theircommunication conflicts in reality.
This leads to leaners outcome in a productionof gramatically false sentences, pronounciation, spelling and etc.For anexample “I goes to school by bus every morning”.The learner might pronounce thewords correctly but the usage of grammar is poor.If error correction is absent,then the learner might use ‘goes’ instead of ‘go’ in both present and pasttense sentences. Preferencestowards connotation(meaning) and rulesThis CLT gives importance to meaning and rules thangrammar rules.CLT is a concern in oral production such as speaking andlistening than reading and writting (Production).It is very true that childrenlearn a language through interaction at a fast rate but nowdays demands ofEnglish are global in accuracy.The production of language is now measured howlearners speak English fluently as well as acurately with the correct formulaof grammar and rules.
Decreasein level of performanceBurnaby and Sun (1989) pointed that it is crucial toimplement CLT in classroom especially for foreign students (EFL).The only inputfor (EFL) students are learning their target language in a classroom with thehelp of teachers. For an example, a Japanese from Japan wants to learn Englishas his or her L2 in their own country(Japan). S/he has only an opportunity to learn and speak English in theirparticular English classes.They are not able to practice and interact with thesociety.
This is because Japanese is a dominant language in Japan.The implementationin (CLT) decreaces because the learner is unable to communicate effectively intheir L2.This instantly effects the student’s motivation that results in thelearners to capitulate in L2.It is more adequate for L2 learners to learn theirtarget language in a country where students L2 is a dominant language in aparticular country. Non-effectiveMonitoringConsider that a classroom has 50 students. How is itpossible for a teacher to monitor each students assesment and performance. Itis possible, but the possibilities are quite slim and this is time consuming aswell.
Some teachers monitor excellent students who are proficent incommunication skills while neglets the weaker students. The weaker studentssomehow try to communicate using their innate knowledge to grasp teachersattention. To solve this matter teachers should group students not according tothe level of performance. For an example, teachers should group excellentstudents with the weaker ones.This can improve students monitoring.
If thestudents are still not comfortable with groupings then it is best for teachersto consult students. Feedback is very adequate for monitoring. This helpsstudents to identify their mistakes and perform better in communication.Feedback and comments should be provided to students after their performancefor a better improvement in CLT. ThePrinciple in Communicative Language Teaching.
Communication Principle.Activities based on CLT are related and involvesreal life communication. CLT promotes learners to communicate in daily life.Language is a tool to communicate effectively.
Learners should learn the languagein hand to interact with others. Activities that are involved in real lifecommunication are role play, interviews, mock teaching and etc. Task PrincipleThrough communication, learners should try tocommunicate according to the task given. This promotes learners towardsmeaningful tasks. Students should participate to gain the benefits through CLT.For an example, the task given is to conduct a consultation sessions in targetlanguage. However, some students struggle to communicate in TL during taskbased activity but the end product is going to surprise them as well. Teachersshould keep on implementing strategies for an excellent communication skills.
Featuresin Communicative Language Teaching 1. Focuson context.2. Communicationcompetence is the aim of CLT.3. Studentcentered.4.
Fluencyand accuracy is the essential goal.5. Studentsdepend upon associating with different people.6.
Task-based orientated. Componentsin Communicative Language Teaching. Grammatical CompetenceGrammatical Competence alternately what Savignon(1983) called as the semantic structure of a dialect. This includes the abilityto use vocabulary, spelling, syntax, sentence structures and most importantlygrammar in production of communication. Sociolingustic CompetenceSociolinguistic is a skill to comprehend in a socialcontext.
Learners are able to use L2 in real life communication. Discourse CompetenceThe capacity for associating words, phrases, grammarand vocabulary to construct a stretch of sentences. Strategic Competence Comprehension is the use of verbal and non-verbalcommunication.Strategic competence incorporates in adapting methodologies, withinitiating conversation, concluding, cultivate and repair communication. For anexample, to repair breakdown in a communication channel that interuptscommunication to be heared and received effectively.
Roleof Teachers in Communicative Language Teaching The aspect of teachers is branched into twoelements.The primary role is to encourage the communication process within allstudents in classroom.The second element is to go as an autonomous member of learningand teaching group.It is important for teachers to develop exciting activitiesfor students to learn L2.
Teachers execute as a facilitator, resourcefulperson and act as a model for L2 classroom.Teachers should create positive andancillary environment.Healthy atmosphere in classroom advances risk taking andenable students to attempt error and trial experiments.Positive attitudes in(CLT) classroom prompt an amazing disposition towards dialact and culture.From teachers centered it moves to students centered.Studentscontrol the classroom and do the vast majority of talking.
The educators willencourage, exhort, aid and show direction.Teachers observe to provide feedbackand comments to students if they are incorrect to hinder breakdown of languagecommunication in future. Rolesof Student in Communicative Language Thinking In regard to the learners role, Attkins et (1996)characterized the understudies in an interaction based classroom wherebystudents do most of the talking and they act as an active learners. Moreover,all the students should collaborate to establish a reciprocal learningenviroment.There are some requirement and responsibilities by the students thatshould be taken in accord such as interdependence, unique accountability,promote in interaction and group processing. PositiveInterdependencePositive interdependence is a measure where studentscoordinate together to accomplish their task. However, this also needs fullparticipation among the team members.
The compatible environment increases thelearning culture. SpecificaccountabilityThese elements involves each students to bestowtheir work together. Each students should be given specific task according totheir level of knowledge. PromoteinteractionCLT promotes interaction among students. Even thoughstudents are not able to communicate grammatically correct but the meaning isstill understandable. This restore students to communicate with others.
Goals1. Knowingthe ways on how to use the language for different purposes and functions.This objective showsthat the student has mastered how to use the language when their speaking fordifferent purposes and functions. For example, if the person is using thelanguage is to attend a job interview, then the use of the language must beformal. The use of language must always be suitable for its context of speechand the purpose of speech. This is because when a person uses the wrong usageof words or phrases for any functions, it can deliver a wrong message.
2. Knowingthe ways on how to vary our use of language according settings andparticipants. Different types ofaudiences are addressed differently according to classification of speechstyles. Speech styles are divided into five levels of formality which have beenidentified by Martin Joos (1967). Oratorical style • Thisstyle is used in public speaking or debates before a large audience which mayvary in age.
The words used in this style must be planned carefully to suit thetopic that is chosen by the speaker. There must be exaggerated intonation toemphasize on key points and purpose of speech. The speaker can use rhetoricaldevices like hyperbole and metaphor to make their speech more meaningful and todeliver their message clearly. II. Deliberativestyle• Thisstyle is use to address audience which may vary in age in a two waycommunication style.
In this style there is one person who would be deliveringthe information and also asking and receiving questions from the audience. Thistype of style is not thoroughly planned and can be impromptu. For example, alecturer teaching in a university classroom. III.
Consultativestyle• Thisstyle is in the form of dialog which is formal. The words must be carefullychosen with care and thought before speaking. For example, a meeting to sign anagreement for a business transaction or a doctor-patient conversation. IV. Casualstyle• Thisstyle is use when communicating with friends, families and colleagues. Thesocial barriers are low because the words used are not necessarily to bethought before speaking.
V. Intimatestyle• Thisstyle is used when talking with family, loved ones and close friends. The innerself is revealed because we feel safe around them and they know about us well 3. Knowinghow to produce and understand different types of texts.
This objective shows the importance on how toproduce different texts for different purposes. For example, when sending aresume for a job interview, the letter must be written formally. Other thanthat, when writing an essay the words and phrases must be logic with the topic chosen.The student must also be able to understand a text that is being read to beable to get the information from the text.4. Knowinghow to maintain a conversation.
To be able to achievethis goal, the student must be able to know all the rules of grammar and speakfluently in the language. The student must also be able to know how and what tospeak in different situations. A student who is fluent in the language will beable to keep the conversation going by thinking of new topics and questions. Characteristics1. Itmakes sure the learners use the language accurately and appropriately.
Thismeans the student must learn the rules of grammar, speak the language fluentlyand accurately.2. Thisteaching method is student centred which means while teaching the focus are onthe students and the teacher is the facilitator.
The teacher will guide thestudents when they have difficulty. Students will have active participation inclass for the activities conducted.3. Communicativeactivities are encouraged in this teaching method to allow students to interactwith each other and allow information sharing. More group activities will begiven to allow cooperation to enhance their communication skills.
4. Thismethod focuses on real world contexts. This will give an exposure to studentson how to communicate with others in different context. For example, by givingimpromptu topics for speech exercises for the students.