English Renaissance writer who wrote “Canterbury Tales”
the Renaissance idea that it was the duty of the intellectuals to serve the state
English king from 1271-1307 who presided over the creation of new legal and bureaucratic institutions, violently subjecting Whales and attempted to colonize Scotland
English reformer who translated the Bible to English
battle in the 100 years war where Henry V of England won a crushing victory over the French in 1415
Joan of Arc
lead the French army against the English at Orleans during the 100 years war and later burned at the stake as a witch by the English
Prince Henry the Navigator
established a school for sailors in Portugal
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico.
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in Peru
written by Niccolo Machiavelli
Renaissance painter who painted “Disputa” and the “School of Athens”
Leonardo da Vinci
personified the ideal of the ultimate Renaissance Man
painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
“The Last Supper”
painted by Leonardo da Vinci
explorer who was the first to realize Columbus has discovered a New World.
rulers and wealthy bankers of Florence during the Renaissance and were the patrons of many Renaissance artists
wrote “The Book of Courtier”, an early book of etiquette
Sultan Mehmet II
Ottoman Turk leader who conquered Constantinpole in 1453.
Protestant reformer in Bohemia in 1400’s and was executed for heresy by the Catholic Church.
the name of the movement during the Renaissance that aimed to replace the scholastic emphasis on logic and philosophy with the study of ancient languages, literature, history, and ethics
Renaissance painter who excelled in depicting graceful motion and the sensuous pleasures of nature
Hans Holbein the Younger
Northern Renaissance painter who painted portraits of Sir Thomas Moore and Erasmus
Name the 4 main reaction to the Great Plague
1. An increase in violence and murder due to a sense of life’s cheapness 2. The formation of groups like the flagellants, who physically maimed themselves to save the world.3. Morbidity and preoccupation with death in everyday life.4. Economic depression
Name the 3 main results of the 100 years war
Reinvigorated and strengthened the French monarchy.2. Caused economic and political turmoil in England.3. Temporarily strengthened the nobility in England.
Name the 3 kinds of publications doe by Erasmus
Clever satires meant to show people the errors of their way.2. Serious moral treatises meant to offer guidance toward proper Christian behavior. 3. Scholarly editions of basic Christian texts.
NAme 4 Renaissance painting techniques
1. The use of light and dark shading2. The application of oil-based pigment3.
Precise anatomical renderings of the human body.4. The use of liner perspective to depict 3-dimensions.
After the 1340’s, the economy of Europe was marked by
A fresco painting
is essentially a painting executed on fresh plaster
Dante’s “Divine Comedy” depicts the poet’s mythical journey through
hell, purgatory, and heaven
What drove the increasing European interest in African gold?
increasing demand for expensive luxury foods in Europe
Temujin, who took the title Genghis Khan
the leader who united the Mongol tribes and began the conquest of China
Mongol governance was directed toward
securing tribute from subject territories
How did time become standardized in the 14th century?
due to the invention and proliferation of mechanical clocks
What was the most important consequence for Europeans of the Mongol conquests?
the commercial links it established between Europe and the Far East along the Silk Road
Why did Moscow in the 13th century become an important center?
because it became a tributecollecting center for the Mongol Khanate
The Medieval painter Giotto is remembered especially because he
brought a deep humanity and naturalism to his religious images
The commerce that occurred as a result of the “Pax Mongolica” was facilitated by the introduction of
double-entry bookkeeping and early forms of credit transfers
Why did the Seven Years Famine occurred?
because Europe had reached the limit of its ability to supply food for its population and the climate cooled by approximately two degrees centigrade
the medieval doctrine which taught that the Eucharist became the body and blood of Christ during Mass
What percentage of Europe’s population was probably eliminated during the Black Death?
By the mid-thirteenth century, the pope called some Crusades in order to
support the political needs of the papacy
Why was the Stone of Destiny taken to Westminster Abbey by Edward I?
to demonstrate England’s power over Scotland
How is Bubonic plague spread?
By flea bites
In the 14th century, Edward III argued that he was the legitimate heir of France based on a closer relationship to Philip IV of France then that of the new Valois king because
his mother was Philip IV’s daughter
During the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the 14th century, the papacy was
moved to Avignon, France
As a result of the depopulation in Europe caused by the Black Death