English victory over the French in 1356 during the 100 years war mainly as a result of the long bow.
Charles the Dauphin/VII
French king who was persuaded by Joan of Arc to allow her to command the French army during the siege of Orleans during the 100 years war.
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known as the “Father of Humanism”
the native language of a country
English Renaissance writer who wrote “Canterbury Tales”
the Renaissance idea that it was the duty of the intellectuals to serve the state
English king from 1271-1307 who presided over the creation of new legal and bureaucratic institutions, violently subjecting Whales and attempted to colonize Scotland
English reformer who translated the Bible to English
battle in the 100 years war where Henry V of England won a crushing victory over the French in 1415
Joan of Arc
lead the French army against the English at Orleans during the 100 years war and later burned at the stake as a witch by the English
Prince Henry the Navigator
established a school for sailors in Portugal
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico.
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in Peru
written by Niccolo Machiavelli
Renaissance painter who painted “Disputa” and the “School of Athens”
Leonardo da Vinci
personified the ideal of the ultimate Renaissance Man
painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
“The Last Supper”
painted by Leonardo da Vinci
explorer who was the first to realize Columbus has discovered a New World.
rulers and wealthy bankers of Florence during the Renaissance and were the patrons of many Renaissance artists
wrote “The Book of Courtier”, an early book of etiquette
Sultan Mehmet II
Ottoman Turk leader who conquered Constantinpole in 1453.
Protestant reformer in Bohemia in 1400’s and was executed for heresy by the Catholic Church.
the name of the movement during the Renaissance that aimed to replace the scholastic emphasis on logic and philosophy with the study of ancient languages, literature, history, and ethics
Renaissance painter who excelled in depicting graceful motion and the sensuous pleasures of nature
Hans Holbein the Younger
Northern Renaissance painter who painted portraits of Sir Thomas Moore and Erasmus
Name the 4 main reaction to the Great Plague
1. An increase in violence and murder due to a sense of life’s cheapness 2. The formation of groups like the flagellants, who physically maimed themselves to save the world.3. Morbidity and preoccupation with death in everyday life.4. Economic depression
Name the 3 main results of the 100 years war
Reinvigorated and strengthened the French monarchy.2. Caused economic and political turmoil in England.3. Temporarily strengthened the nobility in England.
Name the 3 kinds of publications doe by Erasmus
Clever satires meant to show people the errors of their way.2. Serious moral treatises meant to offer guidance toward proper Christian behavior. 3. Scholarly editions of basic Christian texts.
NAme 4 Renaissance painting techniques
1. The use of light and dark shading2. The application of oil-based pigment3.
Precise anatomical renderings of the human body.4. The use of liner perspective to depict 3-dimensions.
After the 1340’s, the economy of Europe was marked by
A fresco painting
is essentially a painting executed on fresh plaster
Dante’s “Divine Comedy” depicts the poet’s mythical journey through
hell, purgatory, and heaven
What drove the increasing European interest in African gold?
increasing demand for expensive luxury foods in Europe
Temujin, who took the title Genghis Khan
the leader who united the Mongol tribes and began the conquest of China
Mongol governance was directed toward
securing tribute from subject territories
How did time become standardized in the 14th century?
due to the invention and proliferation of mechanical clocks
What was the most important consequence for Europeans of the Mongol conquests?
the commercial links it established between Europe and the Far East along the Silk Road
Why did Moscow in the 13th century become an important center?
because it became a tributecollecting center for the Mongol Khanate
The Medieval painter Giotto is remembered especially because he
brought a deep humanity and naturalism to his religious images
The commerce that occurred as a result of the “Pax Mongolica” was facilitated by the introduction of
double-entry bookkeeping and early forms of credit transfers
Why did the Seven Years Famine occurred?
because Europe had reached the limit of its ability to supply food for its population and the climate cooled by approximately two degrees centigrade
the medieval doctrine which taught that the Eucharist became the body and blood of Christ during Mass
What percentage of Europe’s population was probably eliminated during the Black Death?
By the mid-thirteenth century, the pope called some Crusades in order to
support the political needs of the papacy
Why was the Stone of Destiny taken to Westminster Abbey by Edward I?
to demonstrate England’s power over Scotland
How is Bubonic plague spread?
By flea bites
In the 14th century, Edward III argued that he was the legitimate heir of France based on a closer relationship to Philip IV of France then that of the new Valois king because
his mother was Philip IV’s daughter
During the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the 14th century, the papacy was
moved to Avignon, France
As a result of the depopulation in Europe caused by the Black Death
Europe’s massively depleted ecological resources recovered
Aside from starvation, the most devastating effect of the Great Famine was the
compromised immune systems of those who survived
The English Peasants Revolt, like other popular uprisings of the 14th century, had its fundamental origins in
the economic, social, and political consequences of the Black Death
The Black Death appears to have originated in
The works of Boccaccio, Chaucer, and de Pisan all demonstrate
the spread of vernacular literacy
How did large landholders sometimes respond to the shortage of agricultural workers as a result of the Black Death?
by forcing tenants to do more unpaid labor, imposing new taxes, and requiring new forms of servitude
The central theme of Christine de Pisan’s “The City of Ladies”
the book is a defense of women against the misogynistic claims of men
Humanists believed that excellent scholarship and poetry could only be written in
classical Latin and classical Greek
Underlying the social unrest of the 13th and 14th centuries lay
a growing sense of self-confidence
What was the goal of the humanist education system?
to produce virtuous citizens and able public officials
Those who claimed aristocratic status in the 14th century did so by
living lavish and extremely expensive lifestyles
For the Ottomans, their conquest of Constantinople brought
vast new wealth, which greatly increased the population of the city
How do historians today generally refer to the term Renaissance?
a period in intellectual and curtural history, marked by a new interest in the study of classical learning
Humanists such as Leon Battista Alberti praised the nuclear family and argued that women should be
consigned purely to domestic roles
The early humanist Petrarch criticized late medieval scholasticism because he felt it
concentrated more on abstract speculation then on virtuous living
The Great Schism ended in 1417 when the
Council of Constance elected a new pope
What did the emerging national monarchies in late medieval Europe result in?
greater militarization and more warfare
The only surviving proponent of Orthodox Christianity after the fall of the Byzantine Empire was the
Russian Orthodox Church
The English Lollards were the lay followers and successors of which late medieval theologian
where the majority of the great painters where from in the 15th century
Joan of Arc was a problematic leader of the France forces during the latter part of the 100 Years War because
she was a peasant woman
Although Jan Huss adopted the ideas of John Wycliffe, he did diverge from Wycliffe in his view of the
importance of Eucharistic piety
The Holy Roman Empire and the Italian Peninsula did not unite as national monarchies in part because
continual armed conflict and shifting alliances prevented the emergence of strong, centralizing rulers in those territories
Why was the printing press a tool of European monarchs?
it enabled the widespread circulation of propaganda
Why is Raphael’s “School of Athens” of interest?
because in part many of Raphael’s contemporaries are used as models for various philosophers
Why did Machiavelli admire Cesare Borgia?
because of his ruthlessness and shrewdness
What was Leonardo da Vinci’s basic approach to painting?
to imitate nature as closely as possible
European art of the 13th century reflected a renewed interest in
Unlike most other Italian intellectuals of his age, Niccolo Machiavelli was
a truly original thinker about politics
Thomas More’s “Utopia” was a
devastating critique of contemporary culture
The unification of the kingdom of Aragon and Castile
was the most important factor in the rise of Spain as a major European power
Granada in 1492
the last Muslim territory to fall in Spain
What did Renaissance architecture emphasized the importance of?
Albrecht Durer was the first northern European artist to master
Italian Renaissance techniques of proportion and perspective
For Michelangelo, the most central features of Renaissance humanism was
the drive to understand an embodied, masculine mind
What was one important difference between the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance that followed?
the northern interest in traditional Christian wisdom over classical virtues
Sculpture during the Renaissance broke with the recent past in that statuary
now became freestanding “in the round”
Texts like Marco Polo’s “Description of the World”
were a mix of fact and fiction
the most lucrative export of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America
What spurred Ferdinand and Isabella’s decision to sponsor Columbus’s voyage?
a desire to counter successful Portuguese exploratory and commercial ventures
In the long history of slavery in Western Civilization, the basic patterns of slavery were not racialized ( in other words, directly related to ethnicity or skin color) until
Lisbon became a significant market for enslaved Africans in the middle of the 15th century
The massive influx of silver from the New World Spanish colonies resulted in
In their voyages along the west coast of Africa, the Portuguese were initially in search of
In economic terms, New World colonization and plunder had the greatest positive effect on the
Beginning in the 1440’s design changes in Portuguese caravels allowed them to
sail with two masts and faster, triangular sails