In comparison to Mesopotamian society, Egyptian society was
. more rural
The Egyptian ruler Akhenaten
is considered by some to be one of the world’s first monotheists
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The Hebrew Bible
focuses on the basic theme of the necessity of the Hebrews to obey their God
Which of the following statements BEST describes the Assyrian government?
It was an absolute monarchy, and the all-powerful kings were vicars of the Assyrian god Ashur.
Which of the following statements concerning Zoroastrianism is NOT correct?
It did not include a final judgment among its beliefs. Persian Zoroastrianism was an ethical-monotheistic religion of the god Ahura Mazda.
It developed a dualism in the struggle between good and evil, and the religion envisioned a final judgment. Although it did not spread much beyond the Persian Empire, it likely influenced later western monotheism. The religion survives today in India’s Parsi community.
During the Age of Pericles
Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system
were professional teachers who seemingly questioned the traditional values of their societies
describes Hellenistic cities?
They were important centers of administration, most of which were dominated by Greeks and Greek culture.
“the Republic” was
Plato’s model of the ideal government and society
the formation of the Corinthian League, with Philip as hegemon the establishment of Macedonian garrisons throughout Greece Greek cooperation with Macedonia for a future war against Persia the victory of Macedonia over Athens and Thebes
results of the battle of Chaeronea In 338 BCE, at Chaeronea in central Greece, King Philip II of Macedonia and his forces defeated the combined armies of Athens and Thebes, the two most powerful city-states in Greece.
The victory made Philip the master of Greece. To enforce his rule, Macedonian garrisons were stationed throughout Greece. Philip planned to use Greek warriors in his proposed war against Persia, but he died in 336 BCE. It was his son, Alexander the Great, who conquered the Persian Empire.
By capturing the Persian capitals of Susa and Persepolis, Alexander
was able to gain possession of huge amounts of gold and silver
They were important centers of administration, most of which were dominated by Greeks and Greek culture.
describes Hellenistic cities
Improvements in trade and commerce in the Hellenistic world were greatly aided by
a. improvements in harbors b. revolutionary innovations in agriculture c.
a money economy d. the development of major trade routes —-The Hellenistic world saw many economic advances, including the development of infrastructure such as roads and harbors, a money economy, new trade routes, and government support and involvement in the economy. However, there were no innovations in agriculture other than the evolution of larger estates worked by a greater number of slaves.
What was the primary difference between the philosophy of the Greek classical period and the philosophy of the Hellenistic period?
Hellenistic philosophy dealt more with human happiness disassociated from the life of the polis. In the large cosmopolitan cities and the giant kingdoms of the Hellenistic world, the individual had little influence on the major political and societal events of the era. Philosophy reflected that public alienation in philosophies such as Epicureanism, which suggested a withdrawal from the public arena in search of private happiness.
Stoicism did envision public service as a noble endeavor, but for Stoics it was not the polis of classical Greece that was the focus, but the unity of all humanity.
As Rome expanded, it became Roman policy to govern the provinces with such officials as
proconsuls As Rome expanded, there developed a need for provincial administrators. In the Roman Republic, consuls were the chief administrators and led the armies in war. Praetors were responsible for justice and the law. Ex-consuls and ex-praetors were appointed proconsuls and proprietors, which were similar positions in Rome’s imperial provinces.
Quaestors were financial officers, and caesar later became synonymous with emperor.
At the battle of Cannae, the Romans
suffered a devastating defeat by Hannibal Cannae, in southern Italy, was the site of one of the famous battles of the ancient world. In the Second Punic War, a large Roman army of perhaps 60,000 confronted the smaller (20,000) army of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Using tactics still studied in military academies today, Hannibal destroyed Rome’s army. Ultimately, however, the inability to reinforce his army forced Hannibal’s withdrawal back to Carthage, where Rome’s military might finally defeated him.
Romans did not readily accept any Greek philosophy
Stoicism, because of its emphasis on virtue and duty It was the philosophy of Stoicism that most engaged and attracted the Romans with its moral values and commitment to political involvement. To many Romans, the ideas of Stoicism seemed to equate with Rome’s traditional values of seriousness and responsibility to family and society.
The second-century emperor Marcus Aurelius is representative of Roman Stoicism, as is exemplified in his Meditations.
The first consul to attain full command of the army and supercede the Senate’s right to conduct wars was
`Marius During the Roman Republic, the Roman armies were made up of property-owning farmers. However, that traditional group was significantly reduced in numbers during the second century BCE. When Marius was given a military assignment to quell an uprising in North Africa in 107 BCE, he ignored the property qualification for military service and recruited an army by promising land to those who enlisted. Marius had his army, but it had the effect of transferring the loyalties of the soldiers from Rome and the Senate to military commanders like Marius who promised them land.
The First Triumvirate included
Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
The Roman Senate under Augustus
was retained as the chief deliberative body of the Roman state The Senate under Augustus remained the chief deliberative body of Rome.
Augustus as princeps was the de facto ruler of Rome, but for reasons of tradition and politics, Augustus allowed the Senate to retain some power and considerable prestige, including the right to rule the empire’s secondary provinces.
Roman provincial and frontier policy under Augustus was characterized by
b. the encouragement of self-government among provincial cities c. provincial rule by legates, proconsuls, and propraetors d. minimum military force to the east e. leaving the lesser provinces under Senate rule -Roman expansion into central Europe came to an end in 9 CE, when German tribes led by Arminius destroyed three Roman legions under Varus in the Teutoburg Forest.
Supposedly, after hearing of the massacre, Augustus cried in anguish, “Varus, give me back my legions.” In the east, Augustus ruled through client kingdoms like Judea, in order to minimize Rome’s direct involvement, thus freeing resources to be used elsewhere.
Among Augustus’ MOST important actions in the area of Roman religion was
c. creation of an imperial cult -In general, the Romans were very tolerant of the disparate religions in the Empire. Under Augustus, an imperial cult, the cult of Roma and Augustus, was established to give some religious and political unity to the many peoples under his rule.
Julius Caesar was deified after his assassination in 44 BCE, as was Augustus after his death in 14 CE, both still memorialized in the months of July and August.
In his Aeneid, Virgil, the most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age,
praised ideal Roman virtues as evidenced from the fall of Troy to Augustus -Virgil’s epic poem, the Aeneid, is the story of Aeneas, a Trojan, who flees burning Troy after the Greek victory. After a series of adventures, including a love affair with the Carthaginian queen Dido and a journey to the underworld, Aeneas fulfills his destiny by becoming one of the founders of Rome.
The Aeneid exemplifies the traditional Roman virtues, and along the way Aeneas is given visions and prophecies of the great Romans who will follow him, including Julius Caesar and Augustus.
The Golden Age historian Livy is well known for his
perception of history in terms of sharp moral lessons -Roman historians generally looked to history to teach moral lessons to readers. Livy, the greatest historian of Rome’s Golden Age, wrote about great figures of the past.
These figures exemplified the virtues that made Rome great, and would inspire generations of Romans.
Which of the statements BEST describes the Julio-Claudian emperors?
They varied greatly in ability and effectiveness. -The Julio-Claudian emperors were a mixed lot. Augustus is considered to be the greatest of all of Rome’s emperors.
Tiberius (r. 14-37), though skillful, is alleged to be the source of many of Rome’s later agonies. Claudius (r. 41-54), who added Britain to the Empire, was more than competent. However, Caligula (r.
37-41) was mentally unbalanced and was murdered by his praetorian guard, and Nero (r. 54-68) was forced to commit suicide over his excessive indulgences. With Nero’s death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty came to an end.
Among the GREATEST achievements of the classical age of Roman law was the
concept of human natural rights implying that all are equal before the law -By the classical age of Roman law, in the second and early third centuries, Roman jurists had come to identify the law of nations with natural law, the law of nature, by which Ulpian (d.
228) claimed that all are born equal, have certain natural rights, and should be treated equally under the law. In reality, this did not happen for many centuries.
Constantine’s MOST enduring reform came in the creation of
a “New Rome” -Constantine’s Edict of Milan legalized Christianity, and before his death in 337 CE, he became the first Christian emperor. By the end of the fourth century, perhaps ninety percent of the population was Christian. In addition, he founded a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek polis of Byzantium. Renamed Constantinople, it became and remained the greatest city in Europe and Christendom for the next thousand
The Petrine Doctrine
was the belief that the bishop of Rome held a preeminent position in the church -In a passage in the Book of Matthew in the Christian Bible, Jesus gives the keys to the kingdom of Heaven to his disciple Peter. Later, according to tradition, Peter became the first bishop of Rome, or the first pope, of the Catholic Church, and all subsequent bishops of Rome have claimed the same power of the keys that Jesus gave to Peter.
The Orthodox Church in the East did not accept Rome’s claim and, later, neither would most Protestant Christians.
Augustine’s work shows BEST
how Christian theologians used pagan culture -St. Augustine (354-430) was a professor of rhetoric in Milan and well educated in the Roman and Greek classical texts. After a religious experience, described in his Confessions, Augustine became a Christian and made use of his knowledge of Greek philosophy in the service of Christianity. His other major work is The City of God, where he contrasts the City of God with the City of the World, or Rome. The soul of the individual depends upon God’s grace, not the accomplishments of Rome.
The basic rule for western monastic living was developed by
Benedict -St. Benedict of Nursia (c. 480-547) was the father of western monasticism. An upper-class Roman, he retreated from the world and became a Christian hermit. Disciples joined him and he established a community of monks, or a monastery, at Monte Casino in Italy. To govern his monastery, he established a series of rules, known as the Benedictine Rule.
Monks took oaths of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and their days were precisely regulated between prayer and labor. The Benedictine Rule governed most western monasteries for centuries.
The controversy of 730 that divided Latin and Greek Orthodox Christians concerned
iconoclasm —-In c. 730, the Byzantine emperor Leo III forbade the use of icons (“image” or “picture” in Greek) of religious figures in worship. Iconoclasts, who were against the use of icons, feared that the icons were being worshiped as images.
Defenders of icons claimed that observers were not worshiping the images but honoring or venerating them. Iconoclasm caused a rift between the eastern Orthodox Christian church, which wanted to keep icons, and the Roman church in the west, which condemned the use of icons.
The coronation of Charlemagne in 800 as emperor of the Romans
symbolized the fusion of Roman, Germanic, and Christian cultures -The crowning of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day 800 by Pope Leo III not only restored the position of emperor to the west after more than three centuries, but it also symbolized the fusion of Roman (Charlemagne became Roman Emperor), Germanic (Charlemagne was descended from the German Franks), and Christian (Charlemagne was a Christian and Pope Leo III performed the ceremony) cultures.
Charlemagne’s Carolingian Renaissance was characterized by
new copies of classical literary works produced in Benedictine monastic scriptoria -The Carolingian Renaissance, led by Alcuin of York, whom Charlemagne placed in charge of his Palace School, focused on the preservation of older manuscripts, some of them from the Graeco-Roman period and others by church writers, that had been produced in monastic scriptoria, rather than upon new and original works. The development of a revised script, known as the Carolingian script, facilitated the preservation and the spread of those newly copied manuscripts.
was an economic system based upon landed estates -Manorialism was the economic system during much of the Middle Ages and was based upon landed agricultural estates.
Generally, larger portions of land, similar to provinces, were known as fiefs, while smaller units of land were called manors. A manor was largely self-sufficient, and the lord of the manor was expected to perform services, often military, for his lord.
The Swedish Vikings—the Varangians—became known or assimilated with which of the following groups?
Russians The correct answer is E. Swedish Vikings, known as Varangians (or Normans), established a series of settlements in the lands of the eastern Slavs. In 882, Rurik, a semi-legendary figure, established a ruling dynasty at Novgorod, and from Rurik comes “Rus,” or Russia. Other Swedish Vikings established another state further south that became known as the principality of Kiev.
The Islamic city in Spain that served as the Umayyad capital was
Cordoba -The Umayyad capital in Spain was Cordoba, and it was the center of a dynamic Islamic society. The Great Mosque of Cordoba is one of the great architectural and artistic structures remaining from its period. It was through Muslim Spain and Cordoba that much classical literature filtered into the Christian West during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Damascus, in modern Syria, was the capital of the Umayyad dynasty until it was overthrown by the Abbasids c. 650, who then made Baghdad, in modern Iraq, their capital.
Cities in medieval Europe
often attained privileges purchased from neighboring territorial lords -Urban revival began in the West in the eleventh century. In order to prosper through trade, commerce, and manufacturing, a city would obtain a charter from the local territorial lord. The charter granted the urban inhabitants certain specified freedoms or “liberties,” often including the right of self-government, in exchange for some sort of payment to the lord.
The curriculum of the medieval university
was the trivium and quadrivium The traditional liberal arts curriculum in medieval universities was the trivium and the quadrivium. The former included grammar, rhetoric, and logic, and the latter encompassed arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.
Classes were taught in Latin, using the lecture method. The instructor would read from a text and students would take notes. Before the invention of the printing press, books were expensive and most students could not afford to buy texts.-
The primary concern of scholasticism was
the reconciliation of faith with reason -In medieval universities, theology was the “queen of the sciences.” Scholasticism was the attempt to reconcile the Christian faith with reason, or to use reason to prove the truth of Christian doctrine and dogma, often using the dialectical method. The most famous of the scholastic philosophers was Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), who used Aristotle’s logic in establishing the truths of Christianity in his Summa Theologica.
Troubadour poetry was chiefly concerned with
the courtly love of nobles, knights, and ladies -Troubadour poetry originated in southern France, possibly inspired by Islamic culture in nearby Spain. It spread throughout much of Europe during the twelfth century.
It was written, or sung, in the vernacular and dealt with the theme of courtly love, or the love of a knight for his lady—who was often married to someone else. It is claimed that troubadour poetry was a major source of the romantic love tradition of western civilization.
The Gothic style of architecture emerged and was perfected in
e. France The Gothic style of architecture emerged in France, at the abbey church of St.
Denis outside of Paris, under the leadership of Abbot Suger. In contrast to the heavier and darker Romanesque churches, the Gothic cathedrals used the rib vault, the pointed arch, and the flying buttress that allowed the use of large stained glass windows to illuminate the interiors.-
Feudalism in England under William I differed from feudalism in other countries in that
it required sub-vassals to swear allegiance to him In the Oath of Salisbury Plain in 1086, William the Conqueror required that all vassals, including sub-vassals, swear a personal oath of loyalty to him as their liege lord, or chief lord. By this oath, sub-vassals owed their loyalty to the king rather than to their immediate lords. The result was that England’s feudal system was much more centralized upon the monarchy than other feudal systems.-
Between the eighth and tenth centuries, serious challenges to the power of the papacy included
Italy’s political fragmentation military threats from Muslim powers attempts by German emperors to rule northern and central Italy incompetent popes
In 1077 at Canossa, King Henry IV
received absolution after humbling himself before the pope —The dispute between Pope Gregory VII and the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over Lay Investiture, or who appoints the clergy to high offices in the church, came to a head at Canossa in northern Italy in 1077. Gregory had excommunicated Henry and had removed him as emperor.
Henry capitulated, and after humbling himself for three days in the snow begging forgiveness, Gregory granted absolution and restored Henry to office. Canossa was considered a great victory for the Church over the State.
The papacy reached its zenith of power in the thirteenth century during the papacy of
. Innocent III – It was under the leadership of Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) that the Church reached the apex of its power during the Middle Ages. He saw himself as the supreme ruler of Christendom, and using the power of excommunication and the interdict, he forced kings to take back unwanted wives, coerced rulers into becoming his vassals, and appointed emperors. Innocent also authorized two important new religious orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans.
An important result of the First Crusade was
the rapid economic growth of Italian commercial cities with maritime ties to the crusader states –The crusades were a combination of warfare and religion, occurring during the High Middle Ages.
The First Crusade (1099) resulted in the creation of several small crusader states after the bloody sack of Jerusalem. Perhaps the greatest impact of the crusades was to fuel rapid economic growth of Italy’s maritime cities with ties to the crusaders states. The Byzantine Empire did not benefit—the crusaders sacked Constantinople in 1204—and the increased communication on the Mediterranean increased the severity of the Black Death when it arrived in 1347.
What was the MAIN cause of the fourteenth-century famines?
a little ice age inducing bad weather with heavy rains -The fourteenth century was a time of troubles. A little ice age led to a drop in temperature, which led to a shorter growing season for crops. A series of disastrous storms in northern Europe, particularly between 1315 and 1317, reduced the harvests, resulting in widespread famine. The Black Death arrived a few decades later.
In the mid-1300s, attempts to explain the Black Death led to
group of flagellants who whipped and beat themselves and each other —The Black Death had numerous consequences, not least in the realm of religion. Some turned away from the Church and religion, arguing that there could be no God who would inflict such pain on humankind. Others, like the flagellants, believed that the Black Death was a punishment for sins, and whipped themselves to repent for their sin.
After 1347, the socioeconomic dislocations from by the Black Death caused the incomes of most European aristocrats to
fall dramatically as the wages they paid to laborers rose while prices for their agricultural products fell —-Western society went from a rising population during the High Middle Ages that resulted in a labor surplus in many areas to a disastrously reduced population in consequence of the Black Death. A labor shortage was the result. Peasants and serfs were thus in a better bargaining position, and the landed aristocracy had to pay higher wages while receiving lower prices because of the reduced food demands of the smaller population.—
A key economic consequence of the Black Death in Western Europe was
a weakening of feudalism as noble landlords converted their serfs to free, rent-paying farmers — In the aftermath of the Black Death, the ruling landed class was hard hit economically. A shortage of labor saw many peasants and serfs freed from their manorial labor responsibilities. By the mid-fifteenth century, serfdom had ended in Western Europe, and individual peasant farmers, who paid market rents to landlords, worked the former manors.
The military progress of the Hundred Years’ War was characterized by
English use of peasant soldiers and the longbow — During the Middle Ages, the battlefield was dominated by society’s ruling class, who wore armor and fought from horseback—the cavalry ruled in medieval warfare.
A dramatic change occurred in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453), when the English used peasants as warriors and the longbow as a crucial weapon. The French feudal armies suffered major defeats at Crecy in 1346 and Agincourt in 1415. Toward the end of the war, the French turned to gunpowder and the cannon to ultimately defeat the English.
The Golden Bull of 1356 in Germany
gave seven electors the power to choose the “King of the Romans” –The elective nature of the German monarchy, or the Holy Roman Empire, was established in 1356 when Emperor Charles IV issued the Golden Bull.
There were seven electors; four were lay rulers and three ecclesiastical officials. Invariably, the electors chose a member of the Habsburg family, although the elections could often be prohibitively expensive. The elective nature ensured that the emperors were generally weak, but the Empire survived until the early nineteenth century when it was abolished by Napoleon.
The papacy at Avignon
witnessed the specialization of the church bureaucracy —-The church lost considerable prestige when Philip the Fair of France moved the papacy to Avignon in 1305, where it remained until the Great Schism ended in 1415. However, while at Avignon, the church centralized its administration and created a specialized bureaucracy, similar to that of European monarchies of the era.
What was the name of the commercial and military league set up off the north coast of Germany?
The Hanseatic League —The Hansiatic League linked together many towns and cities in northern and eastern Germany.
Headed by the city of Lubeck, the league dominated trade in the Baltic and North Seas during the fourteenth and most of the fifteenth century. However, with no strong national or monarchical government support, the league eventually lost out to the Dutch and the English.
The achievements of the Italian Renaissance were the products of a(n)
elite movement, involving small numbers of wealthy patrons, artists, and intellectuals —-The Renaissance was a minority movement. It was an urban phenomena in a world in which a majority of the population were still rural peasants. The intellectual and artistic accomplishments of the Renaissance were achieved by a small number of individual artists and intellectuals, such as Michelangelo, da Vinci, Petrarch and Machiavelli, who were supported by wealthy patrons like the Medici family, who were bankers from Florence.
The Peace of Lodi in 1454 exemplifies the key Italian Renaissance political concept of
a balance of power between multiple competing territorial states —- Italy was made up of five major states and other independent city-states.
The Peace of Lodi in 1454 created a balance of power among the five larger states, with Florence, Milan, and Naples balanced against the papacy and Venice. Major war between the five was avoided for almost fifty years, but it did not lead to further cooperation, with the result that Italy was too disunited to resist the invasions of the large monarchies of France and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century.
Italian Renaissance humanism in the early fifteenth century, above all else
was based on the study of the Greco-Roman classics —-Renaissance humanism was an intellectual movement based upon the literary works of classical Greece and Rome. Most of the major humanists were laypersons rather than clerics. Although many of their sources were Greek, it did not revive Greek as a living language in the west. During the fifteenth century, most humanists, inspired by ancient Rome’s Cicero, believed that the proper life was not one of intellectual withdrawal and solitude but required an involvement in civic life.
Which of the following groups of Italian artists dominated the High Renaissance?
da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo —The major artists of the High Renaissance (c.
1480-1520) were da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Although the Early Renaissance was dominated by Florentines, Rome was the center of the High Renaissance. Popes such as Julius II were great patrons of High Renaissance artists, notably of Michelangelo’s painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Raphael’s School of Athens. Giotto, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, and Ghiberti were earlier artists associated with Florence.
Muslim power vanished from the peninsula
Under Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
The Byzantine Empire was finally destroyed in 1453 by the
. Ottoman Turks —-The Fourth Crusade in 1204 inflicted permanent damage on the Byzantine Empire, and although it regained its independence from the Venetians, it never completely recovered.
The armies of Islam—Arab, Persian, and Turkish—had been warring against the Byzantines for centuries, but it was only in 1453 that Constantinople, the capital of the Christian empire, fell to the Ottoman Turks.
John Wyclif condemned the Church for
Bible should be made available in the vernacular popes should be stripped of their authority and their property veneration of saints should be abolished entire sacramental system should be de-emphasized —-England’s John Wyclif (c. 1328-1384) was a pre-Reformation critic of the church, anticipating many of beliefs of Martin Luther. Like Luther, Wyclif might have been influenced by nationalist attitudes, but his complaints against the church were rooted in theology. In particular, Wyclif could find no basis in scripture for the temporal or political claims of the papacy and accused the church and the popes of pursuing the accumulation of wealth rather than saving souls.
The northern Christian humanists
championed the study of classical and early Christian antiquity to reform the Church — Northern humanists such as Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) turned to the classical past and early Christianity in reforming the church. Erasmus made a new translation of the Bible from early Greek sources.
In addition to the scriptures, northern humanists turned to the early church fathers such as Augustine for guidance and inspiration, believing that Christianity had become corrupt and compromised during the Middle Ages. The Northern Christian humanists believed that the Church needed to be reformed, and that this could be accomplished through education.
Luther’s pamphlet The Babylonian Captivity of the Church
attacked the sacramental system of the church —-Martin Luther (1483-1546) claimed that salvation could only be obtained through faith alone. Good works would not unlock the gates of heaven. In his pamphlet The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Luther harshly criticized the sacramental system of the church, claiming that the sacraments were not vehicles of grace and would not guarantee entrance into paradise. Faith was the only sure path.
At its outset, the Reformation in Germany was
largely an urban phenomenon —–Like many important intellectual and social movements, Germany’s Protestant Reformation was largely an urban phenomenon. Luther’s criticisms of the Church and his demands for reform were set forth in the pamphlets he wrote, which were spread widely thanks to the printing press.
He translated the Bible into German, believing that the believer should experience God, and God’s word, directly. The urban population was largely literate by the sixteenth century, but the rural population was less so.
All of the following were religious innovations championed by Luther
a new worship service conducted in German b. denunciations of clerical celibacy and encouragement that all clerics should marry dissolution of all single-sex monastic orders e. the Bible should be available for all and thus should be translated into the vernacular —-In his initial criticism of the Church and its practices, Luther focused upon the corruption of the papacy and suggested that reform might come about through church councils. He abandoned that position and ultimately claimed that scripture, God’s holy word, was the only true authority, not the institutional church—be it bishop or council.
Religious warfare in Germany ended in 1555 with the
Peace of Augsburg —-By the time of Luther’s death in 1546, warfare had broken out in Germany between Catholics and Lutheran Protestants.
Political as well as religious differences helped to instigate the conflict, since many German princes desired more independence from the emperor. The Schmalkaldic Wars ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg, which gave Lutheranism equal legal standing with Catholicism and allowed the German princes to decide the religion of their territories and thus the religion of their subjects.
Prior to the Zwinglian Reformation, Switzerland
was composed of thirteen cantons, the majority of which were ruled by oligarchies of wealthy citizens —-The Swiss Confederation was a loose association of thirteen self-governing cantons. Six of the cantons, the forest cantons, were democratic republics, while the seven urban cantons were governed by an oligarchy of wealthy citizens. Nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Swiss had become virtually independent in 1499.
The Reformation in England under Henry VIII
was triggered by Henry’s desire to annul his marriage —-England’s Henry VIII was married to a Spanish princess, Catherine of Aragon, but Catherine had failed to give Henry a son (the marriage had produced a daughter, Mary).
Desiring a son and having fallen in love with a young woman at court, Anne Boleyn, Henry sought a divorce. However, marriage was a sacrament in the church and divorce was not acceptable, but more importantly, Spanish and imperial troops were occupying Rome and Pope Clement VII was in no position to grant Henry’s request for a divorce from a Spanish princess. In frustration, Henry turned to England’s Parliament, which passed laws ending the Catholic Church’s jurisdiction over English issues and establishing a separate church, the protestant Church of England.
The reign of Queen Mary of England was most noted for
a failed Catholic restoration —-Queen Mary was the eldest daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. A fervent Catholic, Mary came to the English throne in 1553 when her younger brother, Edward VI, died. Edward had been a committed Protestant, but Mary wished to return England to the Catholic Church. She died in 1558, having failed in her attempt to restore Catholicism.
She left no heirs, only her reputation as “bloody Mary” for the Protestant martyrs she created.
The Reformation changed conceptions of the family by
extolling the superior state of marriage over celibacy —-The Protestant Reformation rejected the concept of celibacy for both men and women, claiming that marriage was a superior state. Luther abandoned the priesthood, married, and had a family.
The Reformation did not create new careers outside the home, and the Protestant churches had even fewer options for women than did the Catholic Church, where they could be nuns. Protestant and Catholic women in the west remained subordinate in custom and law for many centuries.
In France, the politiques were
those who placed politics ahead of religion in an attempt to end the wars of religion —-Politiques were late-sixteenth-century rulers who emphasized politics over religion in an attempt to end the destructive religious wars that had devastated much of Europe. Examples of politiques would be England’s Elizabeth I, who established a middle path between radical Puritans and mainstream Protestants, and France’s Henry IV, the first Bourbon king, who changed his religion from Protestant Huguenot to Catholic, the religion of the majority, and then granted tolerance to the Huguenot minority by the Edict of Nantes.
The greatest advocate of militant Catholicism was
Philip II of Spain —-The greatest advocate of militant Catholicism in the sixteenth century was Spain’s Philip II (r.
1556-1598), known as the “Most Catholic King.” In the Middle Ages, Spanish Christians had waged crusades against the Moors for centuries. Philip carried that tradition into the 1500s by waging war against the Turks in the Mediterranean and winning the Battle of Lapanto in 1571, warring against the Dutch because of their rebellion against his autocratic rule, and in launching the Spanish Armada against Elizabeth and England.
Spanish expansion and exploration of the New World was BEST characterized by
the conquest of the Aztec Empire by Cortés —-Spanish expansion in the New World was best characterized by Cortés’ conquest of the Aztecs in today’s modern Mexico. Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, Balboa was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean, and Pizarro conquered the Incas of South America
Between the sixteenth and the nineteenth century, the number of African slaves shipped to the New World may be as high as
ten million There are no precise statistics as to the number of slaves shipped from Africa to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth century, but the accepted estimate is ten million—–
The MOST valuable product from the West Indies after the 1700s was
sugar —- The most valuable product from the West Indies was sugar. The sugar-producing islands generated more wealth for Britain than all of England’s North American colonies combined. The sugar plantations also required considerable number of slaves because of the high mortality rate, thus fueling the African slave trade.
The inflation of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century
caused a decline in the standard of living for wage earners —–Economic statistics in the sixteenth and seventeenth century are incomplete and imprecise. However, the influx of silver from the New World did increase inflation rates from earlier periods. One result was that wages could no longer keep up with the cost of living increases, particularly for increasingly expensive foodstuffs.
Mercantilism includes all of the following concepts
economic activity is war carried on by peaceful means b. the prosperity of a nation depends upon its gold and silver reserves governments should stimulate trade through high tariffs and industry subsidization e. laissez-faire is not an acceptable governing philosophy —–Mercantilism was an economic system that envisioned the world in competition through trade, the total volume of which was fixed and unchangeable. For there to be winners, there had to be losers. A “winner” must export more goods and services than it imported. As a result, governments adopted tariffs to limit imports. Colonies were valued and desirable because they could provide raw materials as well as markets for finished goods.
Horses and cattle from Europe and corn from the New World c.
Gunpowder from Europe and tobacco from the New World d. Smallpox from Europe and gold and silver from the New World e. Peanuts and pumpkins from the New World and Christianity from Europe
The Petition of Right (1628), among other things,
maintained that the King could pass no new tax without the consent of Parliament —-The conflict between the Stuart kings and the English Parliament began when James I arrived in England in 1603, sparked by the Stuart claim that they governed by divine right and thus were not bound by Parliamentary laws. In 1628, Parliament presented to the second Stuart monarch, Charles I, the Petition of Right, which prohibited taxation without Parliament’s consent. In 1629, Charles dismissed Parliament, which did not meet again until 1640.
When it assembled, it began a series of events that led to the English Civil War in 1642 and the execution of Charles in 1649.
The artistic movement known as Mannerism reached its peak with the works of
El Greco —-The artistic movement of Mannerism was a reaction to the qualities of balance, harmony, and moderation found in High Renaissance art. Great Mannerist painters, such as El Greco (1541-1614), distorted proportions portraying elongated and contorted figures in an atmosphere of suffering, confusion, and anxiety.