Western Wind: An Introduction to Poetry Ch. 1-6

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Last updated: December 13, 2019

Lyrical Poetry
a type of emotional songlike poetry, distinguished from dramatic and narrative poetry

Narrative Poetry
a form of poetry that tells a story, often making use of the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse.

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Image
A piece of news from the world outside or from our own bodies which is brought into light of consciousness through one of the senses

Concrete Image
imagery uses vivid descriptions to communicate concepts and scenes with sensory language. Using words that represent colors, objects, textures and sounds can help readers picture a powerful image in their head while reading your poem.

Abstract Image
language that portrays sensations or experiences that have no physical parallel, such as ideas, concepts, or emotions.

Paraphrase
express the meaning of (the writer or speaker or something written or spoken) using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity.

Simile
a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.

g., as brave as a lion, crazy like a fox ).

Metaphor
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.”I had fallen through a trapdoor of depression,” said Mark, who was fond of theatrical metaphors”

Analogy
a comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.”an analogy between the workings of nature and those of human societies”

Synesthesia
a technique adopted by writers to present ideas, characters or places in such a manner that they appeal to more than one senses like hearing, seeing, smell etc.

at a given time.

Allusion
an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.”an allusion to Shakespeare”

Personification
the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.

Mythology
a natural product of the symbolizing mind (p. 40)

Synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa, as in Cleveland won by six runs (meaning “Cleveland’s baseball team”). (p. 46)

Metonymy
the substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the track for horse racing (p. 47)

Symbol
an image that stands for more than it denotes literally, is a metaphor in that it transfers meaning from one thing to another (p.

49)

Allegory
a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.”Pilgrim’s Progress is an allegory of the spiritual journey” (p. 59)

Antipoetry
an art movement that attempts to break away from the normal conventions of traditional poetry.

Paradox
a statement that seems to imply contradiction. a statement or proposition that, despite sound (or apparently sound) reasoning from acceptable premises, leads to a conclusion that seems senseless, logically unacceptable, or self-contradictory.

(p. 75)

Oxymoron
a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction. Being aware of a paradox. (p. 75)

Irony
a figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words.

It may also be a situation that may end up in quite a different way than what is generally anticipated. In simple words, it is a difference between the appearance and the reality. (p. 76)

Dramatic Irony
the characters are oblivious of the situation but the audience is not. (p.

77)

Withheld Image
the image that is not literally stated in the language of the poem (p. 80)

Litotes
ironic understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary (e.g., you won’t be sorry, meaning you’ll be glad ). (p.

83)

Hyperbole
exaggerations to create emphasis or effect. (p. 83)

Archetypal Image
patterns, and symbols that rise out of the collective unconscious and appear in dreams, mythology, and fairy tales. (p. 92)

Invective
denotes speech or writing that attacks, insults, or denounces a person, topic, or institution. (p. 95)

Sentimentality
excessive tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia.

“there are passages which verge on sentimentality” (p. 99)

Connotation
refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly. For instance, “Wall Street” literally means a street situated in Lower Manhattan but connotatively it refers to “wealth” and “power”. (p. 120)

Denotation
defined as literal or dictionary meanings of a word in contrast to its connotative or associated meanings. If you search for meaning of the word “dove” in a dictionary, you will see that its meaning is “a type of pigeon, a wild and domesticated bird having a heavy body and short legs.

” In literature, however, you frequently see “dove” referred to as a symbol of peace. (p. 120)

Cliches
refers to an expression that has been overused to the extent that it loses its original meaning or novelty and may also refer to actions and events which are predictable because of some previous events. (p.

120)

Diction
defined as style of speaking or writing determined by the choice of words by a speaker or a writer.

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