WGU IWC1 Personal Study Guide

Topics: ArtArt Movements

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Last updated: December 2, 2019

The documentary film “An Inconvenient Truth” about former vice president Al Gore’s campaign to warn the public about climate change is an example of which of the following purposes of art?
Art edifying and persuading.

What is the innate or learned ability to appreciate a work of art?
Aesthetic perception

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Which of the following American poets helped establish “jazz poetry”?
Langston Hughes

Which of the following is a primary color?
red, yellow, blue

A watercolor painting to which an opaque white has been added is called a ________________.
gouache

Which of the following artistic disciplines fostered Pictorialism?
Photography

What is the exact duplication of elements (shapes, forms, etc) on either side of a central axis?
Symmetry

What is a type of kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents?
a mobile

Which of the following movements stresses the inclusion or combination of several different styles in one composition or work of art?
Eclecticism

The elegant gardens at Versailles are an example of ___________ landscape design.
formal

The Arts
Those disciplines that create aesthetic objects, environments, or experience through skill or imagination.

Art
The creation of beautiful or significant things; the products of human creativity.

Which of the following is an element of Western classical antiquity?
Harmony

Which artistic movement revived a classical style and was characterized by use of classical details and principles of order and balance.
Neoclassicism (Neoclassicism revived a classical style and was characterized by use of classical details and principles of order and balance).

Which artistic movement was based in New England and emphasized feeling over reason?
Transcendentalism

Dadaism held which of the following as a core principle?
Ridicule of traditional and contemporary art forms, and an emphasis on the absurd

The principle of extreme simplicity of form was most valued by which of the following art movements?
Minimalism

The novel The Great Gatsby can best be seen as offering an examination of which philosophical idea?
Libertarianism

Cultural or moral relativism is discussed in which of the following novels?
Frankenstein

How did the New Testament influence Medieval visual art?
a)The New Testament inspired images, icons, and symbols on wood, in stained glass, and on church walls. b) Medieval visual art depicted the life and death of Jesus, saints, and disciples. c) The stories and parables from the New Testament offered a rich resource for artists. ALL OF THE ABOVE

Which of the following describes the iconoclasm of the Reformation?
Reformation Protestants often destroyed Roman Catholic visual art because of its perceived extravagance.

Which of the following is a way technology has influenced the development of the humanities?
a)The printing press b) Color cinematography c) Electronic music synthesizers ALL OF THE ABOVE

This sculpture is from which of the following movements? ( “Nymph Among the Scorpions” by Bartolini)
Neoclassicism

This sculpture is from which of the following movements? (“Venus de Milo” by Alexandros of Antioch)
Classicism

This image is from which of the following movements? (The Peacock Skirt by Aubrey Beardsley)
Art Nouveau

This image is from which of the following movements? (Woman With a Hat (1905) by Henri Matisse)
Modernism

This image is from which of the following movements? (Roman wall painting)
Classicism

Classicism
Greece, 8,000 BCE – 146 BCE; Rome, 500 BCE – 476 CEthe arts of Western classical antiquity from Greece and Rome, was known for its order, simplicity, harmony, proportion, and restraint.

Ancient Greek Art
artwork from Classical Greece, circa 8,000-146 B.C.

E.

Classical Humanism
the cultural movement of the Renaissance, based on Greek and Roman classic literature, that emphasized the dignity, worth, and rationality of humankind

Roman Art
artwork produced by Roman civilization, circa 500 B.C.E.-476 C.E. (borrows from Greek culture and from the Romans’ predecessor, the Etruscans)

Law of the Golden Section
law that expresses the most aesthetically satisfying relationship between the two sides of a plane (for example, a rectangle); the ratio is 1 to 1.

68 (Ancient Greeks & Romans understood this)

Renaissance
14th – 16th century; “re-birth;” featured a revival of classical art, literature, philosophy, architecture, and learning and an emphasis on humanism; artists in this movement (Leonardo DaVinci, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Titian, Raphael, and Albrecht Dürer).

Baroque
17th century and early 18th century; known for its religious focus and its elaborate and extensive ornamentation; artist in this movement (Johann Sebastian Bach, Caravaggio, Rembrandt)

Neoclassicism
18th century; featured revival of classical styles (usually those of ancient Greece or Rome) in art, architecture, literature, theater, and music;tragedy & comedy were not mixed in theater; artists in this movement (Jacques-Louis David, Jean Batiste Moliere, Jean Racine, and Pierre Corneille, Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen).

Romanticism
19th century; a period that emphasized the boldly heroic, the individual, the imaginative, and the irrational, believing that aesthetic authenticity could be found in strong emotional response.; These artists stressed passion, emotion, and exotic settings with dramatic action.

There was a focus on heroic subject matters; Byronic hero; artists of this period (Ludwig Beethoven, Hector Berlioz, Franz Schubert, Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner, James Barry, Henry Fuseli, John Hamilton Mortimer, John Flaxman, Edgar Allan Poe)

Modernism
Late 19th and 20th centuries; challenged traditional representational art forms and experimented with new styles and form; abstract art; Artist from this movement (Ezra Pound, Constantin Brâncusi, T.S. Eliot, W.B. Yeats, e.

e. cummings, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso).

Abstract Art
art that departs from natural or realistic appearances; often transformed recognizable scenes or objects into new expressive works of art.

Realism
second half of the 19th century; was a counter-reaction to idealized Romantic art; painters depicted lives of everyday people doing everyday things; it sought to grapple with the emergence of industrialism and growing social and political tensions over inequality and European imperialism; became popular just as photography was introduced; artists from this movement (Charles Dickens, the Russian authors Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Mark Twain, Henry James, Gustave Courbet, Jean-François Millet, Honore Daumier, Ferdinand Hodler and Édouard Manet).

Transcendentalism
A broad, philosophical movement in New England during the Romantic era, emphasizing feeling over reason and the role of the individual finding an intuitive relation to the universe through solitude amid nature; Key figures in the movement included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Amos Bronson Alcott and Theodore Parker; authors Nathaniel Hawthorne, Walt Whitman, and Emily Dickinson; and the painters of the Hudson River Valley school.

Naturalism
A movement of the late 19th and early 20th century in literature and the visual arts inspired by the Darwinian view of nature and scientific means and approaches.

Impressionism
A movement of the mid to late 19th century based on the artist’s subjective experience of the world as color and light. Painters focused on color and the optical effects of light. (Monet)

Minimalism
A movement of the second half of 20th century that emphasized extreme simplicity of form in art, design, and architecture. (IBM building)

Pop Art
A 20th century art movement that was inspired by commercial art and elements of mass culture (comic strips, movies, T.V.

, mass media advertising) and that recycled these elements.

Surrealism
A 20th century movement that, inspired by the psychological insights of Freud and Jung, explored the world of dreams and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind. The result was art that mixed the real and the unreal.

Fauvism
A movement of the early 20th century that emphasized spontaneity and the use of bright, non-natural colors. This art employed bold, undisguised brush strokes and vibrant, pure colors.

Dadaism
An early 20th century movement that responded to the horrors of World War One by emphasizing the absurd and mocking contemporary culture and traditional art forms. In this movement, “found objects” became art.

Cubism
A movement of the early 20th century that emphasized abstract structure rather than representationalism.

In paintings, the field of vision was often broken into discontinuous segments and objects or forms depicted as assemblages of geometric shapes.

Art Nouveau
A movement of the late 19th through early 20th centuries, it featured a decorative style of art and architecture employing sinuous lines and simplified forms. Highly stylized, flowing, curvilinear designs often incorporated floral and other natural organic forms.

This movement featured a revival of classical humanism.

Renaissance

This movement emphasized the artist’s subjective experience of the world as color and light.
impressionalism

This movement featured a decorative style of art and architecture employing sinuous lines and simplified forms.
Art Nouveau

This movement explored the world of dreams and the unconscious mind.
surrealism

This movement was known for experimental use of language and rhythm in its poetry.
Modernism

This movement was known for its elaborate and extensive ornamentation and religious emphasis.

Baroque

This movement was known for depicting objects or forms as assemblages of geometric shapes.
Cubism

This movement was known for its humorous use of commercial art and elements of mass culture.
pop art

The Mona Lisa was part of what art movement?
renaissance

Libertarianism
a political philosophy that emphasizes personal and individual liberty above collective social interests. EX: The Great Gatsby

Epicureanism
a philosophy which asserts that the greatest happiness in life is found in avoiding pain.EX: In another country by Ernest Hemingway

Determinism
(philosophy) a philosophical theory holding that all events are inevitable consequences of antecedent sufficient causes. denies free will EX: Madame Bovary & Beginning my Studies

Existentialism
A philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions; maintains that existence is the only certainty.

God’s existence cannot be proved. Individuals are free to define themselves through their choices and decisions, but the cost of freedom is accepting responsibility for the consequences of whatever they choose. EX: Mother Night & We Real Cool

Cultural Relativism (Moral Relativism)
maintains that right and wrong have no universal meaning. They are deemed to be relative (that is, subject to change, depending on circumstances) rather than absolute (that is, fixed, regardless of circumstances). Right and wrong are defined by a particular cultural context. EX: Frankenstein

Ethical Egoism
is the philosophic belief that acting in your own self-interest is moral. It is a normative belief, as it states how things ought to be. The underlying foundation, according to philosopher and author Ayn Rand, is that individual life is so precious that it is of the highest moral value and should not be used as a sacrifice to anything or anyone else.

EX: Atlas Shrugged

In The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros, the main character is a young Hispanic girl who battles tremendous odds to make a better life for herself. Which of the following philosophical viewpoints aligns closest thematically with the novel?
Libertarianism; it holds that humans possess free will and should be free to exercise it, which is what the protagonist is doing when she follows her personal American Dream.

Which concept is found in both western humanism and neo=confusianism?
looking to the past for valuble insight???

chiaroscuro
A monochrome picture made by using several different shades of the same color

how does choice of profession contribute to a persons sense of meaning?
determines a persons success?

Dissonance
conbeys aggression and tension

pragmatism
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.

baroque
An artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements

determinist
Model: You are what others have made you to be

Modernism, Transcendentalism, realism, surrealism
.

..

dadaism
An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.

contextual criticism
.

..

abstract expressionism
A painting movement that involved the expression of feelings and states of mind through abstract means, first coming together in New York City in the 1940s.

impressionism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing

minimalism
20th-century artist style that uses a minimum of art element

realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be

romanticism
19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.

art noveau
French for “new art,” this ne international style of art was popular at the beginning of the 20th century.

This style incorporated flowing and dynamic curvatures in painting, architecture, and sculpture. This style was influenced by art from foreign lands, such as Japan, as well as previous art styles in Europe, such as the Rococo style.

fauvism
A painting style developed by Henri Matisse in 1905 that formally lasted until 1908. The means “fierce animal.” The style rejects Neo-Impressionism and expresses flat, bold, un-naturalistic color with impulsive brushwork; sometimes the blank canvas shows between brushstrokes.

existentialist
a 20th century philosophical movement that denies the universe has any intrinsic meaning or purpose and that humans create their own meaning.

Humans take responsibility for their own actions and shape their own destinies; we invent ourselves through our choices; free will is all we have

psychological egoism
The view that we are compelled by our psychological makeup always to pursue our self-interest above all else.

moral relativism
Moral truth is relative to the group or individual.

manipulated sculptures
..

.

exposition
Background information presented in a literary work.

catharsis
..

.

avant-garde
Radically new or original

virtuoso
A person highly skilled in music or another artistic pursuit

folkloric dance
a dance form reflecting the inherited, traditional dances of the common people

intaglio
Any printing process in which the ink sits below the surface of the plate

sunken relief
sculptural relief in which the image or design is modeled below the original surface of the background, which is not cut away

etching
An Intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate coated with wax is drawn upon with a sharp tool down to the plate and then placed in an acid bath. The acid eats into the plate where the lines have been drawn, the wax is removed, and then the plate is inked and printed.

silver gelatin
the name for photographs created on black and white photographic paper

fugue
A composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme, the fugue subject

motet
A short piece of sacred choral music, typically polyphonic and unaccompanied

toccata
A virtuoso piece common during the Baroque Period, written in free style with many scales and rapid passages

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