Type: Research Essays
Sample donated: Antonio Carroll
Last updated: August 8, 2019
What Is Artificial Intelligence? Artificial intelligence (A1) Consists of related technologies that try to simulate and reproduce human thought and behavior Includes thinking, speaking, feeling, and reasoning A1 technologies Concerned with generating and displaying knowledge and facts Knowledge engineers try to discover “rules of thumb” Enable computers to perform tasks usually handled by humans Capabilities of these systems have improved in an attempt to close the gap between artificial intelligence and human intelligence A1 Technologies Supporting Decision MakingDecision makers use information technologies in decision-making analyses: What-is What-if Other questions: Why? What does it mean? What should be done? When should it be done? Robotics One of the most successful applications of A1 Perform well at simple, repetitive tasks Currently used mainly on assembly lines in Japan and the United States Cost of industrial robots Some robots have limited vision Honda’s ASIMO One of the most advanced and most popular robots Works with other robots in coordination Personal robots Limited mobility/vision, and some speech capabilitiesRobots have some unique advantages in the workplace compared with humans Expert Systems One of the most successful A1-related technologies Mimic human expertise in a field to solve a problem in a well-defined area Consist of programs that mimic human thought behavior In a specific area that human experts have solved successfully Work with heuristic data Components of an Expert System Knowledge acquisition facility Knowledge base Factual knowledge Heuristic knowledge Meta-knowledge User interface Explanation facility Inference engine Forward chaining Series of “if-then-else” Condition pairs are performedThe “if” condition is evaluated first Then the corresponding “then-else” action is carried out Backward chaining Starts with the goal??”the “then” part Backtracks to find the right solution Semantic (associative) networks Represents information as links and nodes Frames Store conditions or objects in hierarchical order Scripts Describe a sequence of events Uses of Expert Systems Airline industry Forensics lab work Banking and finance Education Food industry Personnel management Security US Government Agriculture Criteria for Using Expert Systems Human expertise is needed but one expert cant investigate all the dimensions of a roblem Knowledge can be represented as rules or heuristics Decision or task has already been handled successfully by human experts Decision or task requires consistency and standardization Subject domain is limited Decision or task involves many rules and complex logic Scarcity of experts in the organization Criteria for Not Using Expert Systems Very few rules Too many rules Well-structured numerical problems are involved Problems are in areas that are too wide and shallow Disagreement among experts Problems require human experts Advantages of Expert Systems Never become distracted, forgetful, or tiredDuplicate and preserve the expertise of scarce experts Create consistency in decision making Improve the decision-making skills of nonexperts Case-Based Reasoning Problem-solving technique Matches a new case (problem) with a previously solved case and its solution stored in a database If there’s no exact match between the new case and cases stored in the database System can query the user for clarification or more information If no match is found after the above query Human expert must solve the problem Intelligent Agents Bots (short for robots) Software capable of reasoning and following rule-based processes Are becoming ore popular Especially in e-commerce Characteristics: Adaptability Autonomy Collaborative behavior Humanlike interface Mobility Reactivity Web marketing Collect information about customers, such as items purchased, demographic information, and expressed and implied preferences “Virtual catalogs” Display product descriptions based on customers’ previous experiences and preferences Shopping and Information Agents Help users navigate through the vast resources available on the Web Provide better results in finding information Examples Pricewatch BestBookBuys wrww. mysimon. com Dogpile Searches the Web by using several search enginesRemoves duplicate results Personal Agents Perform specific tasks for a user Such as: Completing e-mail addresses after the first few characters are typed Data-Mining Agents Work with a data warehouse Detect trend changes Discover information and relationships among data items that were not readily apparent Having this information early enables decision makers to come up with a solution that minimizes the negative effects of the problem Monitoring and Surveillance Agents Track and report on computer equipment and network systems To predict when a system crash or failure might occur Example: NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory Fuzzy Logic Allows a smooth, gradual transition between human and computer vocabularies Deals with variations in linguistic terms by using a degree of membership Designed to help computers simulate vagueness and uncertainty in common situations Works based on the degree of membership in a set Uses of Fuzzy Logic Used in: Search engines, chip design, database management systems, software development, and more Examples: Dryers Refrigerators Shower systems Video camcorders Artificial Neural Networks Networks that learn and are capable of performing tasks that are difficult with conventional computers Examples:Playing chess, recognizing patterns in faces and objects, and filtering spam e-mail Used for poorly structured problems Uses patterns Not the if-then-else rules that expert systems use Creates a model based on input and output Used for many tasks, including: Bankruptcy prediction Credit rating Investment analysis Oil and gas exploration Target marketing Genetic Algorithms Used mostly in techniques to find solutions to optimization and search problems Applications: Jet engine design, portfolio development, and network design Find the combination of inputs that generates the most desirable outputs Techniques Crossover Mutation Natural Language Processing Developed so that users can communicate with computers in human language Provides question-and-answer setting that’s more natural and easier for people to use Products aren’t capable of a dialogue that compares with conversations between humans However, progress has been steady Categories: Interface to databases Machine translation Text scanning and intelligent indexing programs for summarizing large amounts of text Generating text for automated production of standard documents Speech systems for voice interaction with computers Interfacing: Accepting human language as inputCarrying out the corresponding command Generating the necessary output Knowledge acquisition: Using the computer to read large amounts of text and understand the information well enough to: Summarize important points and store information so the system can respond to inquiries about the content Integrating A1 Technologies into Decision Support Systems I-related technologies can improve the quality of decision support systems (DSSs) Including expert systems, natural language processing, and artificial neural networks You can add A1 technologies to a DSS’s model base component Integrating expert ystem capabilities into the user interface component can improve the quality and user friendliness of a DSS Trends in Software and Service Distribution Recent trends in software and service distribution include: Pull and push technologies Application service providers Pull and Push Technologies Pull technology User states a need before getting information Entering a URL in a Web browser to go to a certain Web site Push technology (Webcasting) Web server delivers information to users who have signed up for this service Supported by many Web browsers Also available from vendors Delivers content to users automatically at set intervals or when a new event occurs Examples of push technology: “A newer version of Adobe Flash is available. Would you like to install it? Research In Motion (RIM) offers a new BlackBerry push API Microsoft Direct Push from AT&T Application service providers (ASPS) Provides access to software or services for a fee Software as a service (SaaS), or on-demand software Model for ASPs to deliver software to users for a fee Software might be for temporary or long-term use Users don’t need to be concerned with new software versions and compatibility roblems Users can also save all application data on the ASP’s server Software and data are portable The SaaS model can take several forms: Software services for general use A specific service A service in a vertical market Advantages: Similar to outsourcing Less expensive Delivering information more quickly Other advantages and disadvantages Vendors: Google, Microsoft, Salesforce, NetSuite, Basecamp, and Mint Virtual Reality Virtual reality (VR): Computer-generated, 3D images to create the illusion of interaction in a real-world environment Began with military fght simulations in the 1960s In the 1990s, Japan’s Matsushita virtual kitchen Customers changed fixtures and appliances The design could be altered on a computer Virtually walked around the kitchen space First VR system designed for general public use VR terms: Simulation Interaction Immersion Telepresence Networked communication Types of Virtual Environments Egocentric environment User is totally immersed in the VR world Most common technology used with this environment is a head-mounted display (HMD) Exocentric environment Data is still rendered in 3-D Users can only view it onscreen Main technology used in this environment is 3-D graphics Components of a Virtual Reality SystemVisual and aural systems Manual control for navigation Central coordinating processor and software system Walker CAVE Cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) Virtual environment consisting of a cube-shaped room in which the walls are rear- projection screens Uses holographic devices that create, capture, and display images in true 3-D form People can: Enter CAVES in other locations No matter how far away they are geographically Interact with the other users High-speed digital cameras capture one user’s presence and movements Then re- create and send these images to users in other CAVES Used for research in many fields: Archaeology, architecture, engineering, geology, and physics Some engineering companies use CAVES to improve product design and development Virtual Reality Applications Military flight simulations Medicine for “bloodless” surgery Entertainment industry Will one day be used for user interfaces in information systems Current business applications: Assistance for the disabled Architectural design Flight simulation Videoconferencing Group support systems Obstacles in Using VR Systems Not enough fiber-optic cables are currently available for a VR environment capable of re-creating a conference Problems must be solved:Confusion between the VR environment and the real environment Mobility and other problems with HMDs Need for additional computing power Virtual Worlds Simulated environment designed for users to interact via avatars Avatar 2D or 3D graphical representation of a person in the virtual world Used in chat rooms and online games Strategy Analytics predicts that 640 million people worldwide will inhabit virtual worlds BY 201 5 With avatars, users can: Manipulate objects Experience a limited telepresence Communicate using text, graphical icons, and sound Widely used virtual worlds Active Worlds Club Penguin EGO Entropia Universe Habbo Runescape Second Life Radio Frequency Identification: An Overview Radio frequency identification (RFID) tag Small electronic device consisting of a small chip and an antenna Provides a unique identification for the card or the object carrying the tag Do not have to be in contact with the scanner to be read Can be read from a distance of about 20 feet Two types of RFID tags: Passive No internal power supply They can be very small Best ones have about 10 years of battery life Active Usually more reliable than passive tags Technical problems and issues of privacy and security Quick Response CodesQR (quick response) code: Matrix barcode, black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background High storage capacity Small printout size Dirt and dust resistance Readable from any direction Compatible with the Japanese character set Biometrics: A Second Look Current and future applications of biometrics: ATM, credit, and debit cards Network and computer login security Voting Employee time clocks Member identification in sport clubs Airport security and fast check-in Passports and highly secured government ID cards Sporting events Cell phones and smart cards Trends in Networking Recent trends in networking technologies Many are already used Wireless technologies and grid computing Newer but attracting a lot of attention: WiMAX and cloud computing Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Broadband wireless technology Information can be transmitted over short distances In the form of radio waves Connect Computers, mobile phones and smart phones, MP3 players, PDAs, and game consoles Wi-Fi hotspots WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) Based on the IEEE 802. 16 standards Designed for wireless metropolitan area networks Theoretically has faster data transfer rates and a longer range than Wi-Fi Disadvantages:Interference from other wireless devices, high costs, and interruptions from weather conditions Bluetooth Wireless technology for transferring data over short distances Can be used to create a personal area network (PAN) Popular as a safer method of talking on cell phones while driving Uses a radio technology called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Used to connect devices such as: Computers, global positioning systems (GPSs), mobile phones, laptops, printers, and digital cameras No line-of-sight limitations Limited transfer rate Grid Computing Combining the processing powers of various computers Node” Each participant in a grid Processing on overused nodes can be switched to idle servers and even desktop Improved reliability Parallel processing nature Scalability Utility (On-Demand) Computing Provision of IT services on demand Users pay for computing or storage resources on an as-needed basis Main advantages Convenience and cost savings Drawbacks Privacy and security Cloud Computing Platform incorporating many recent technologies under one platform, including SaaS model, Web 2.
0, grid computing, and utility computing Nearly all tech vendors are involved in cloud computing Example:Editing Word document on an iPhone Same advantages and disadvantages as distributed computing Services typically require a fee Some are free Google Apps Includes Gmail, Google Talk, and Google Docs Provides commonly used applications accessed via a Web browser Public, Private, Hybrid, and Community Clouds: Which One to Choose Choose based on security needs and level of involvement IT managers require Public: Users connect with an off-site infrastructure over the Internet Private: Services and the infrastructure are run on a private network Hybrid: A collection of at least one private and at least one ublic cloud Community: Use by a specific community of users from organizations with common concerns Cloud Computing Security Risks Privileged user access Regulatory compliance Data location Data segregation Recovery Investigative support Long-term viability Nanotechnology Incorporates techniques that involve the structure and composition of materials on a nanoscale Nanometer is one billionth of a meter Current technology for miniaturizing transistors and other components might reach its limit in the next decade Some consumer goods incorporating nanotechnology are already on the market Nanomaterials