Why did people in the Middle live more in the country?
the city was not the center of government, cities came under attack, trade economy of the city declined.
Why were the middle ages were considered the dark ages?
literacy and education declined
What are some of the reasons for the First Crusade of the late 11th century?
Some Europeans wanted to free the Holy Land from control by the Seljuk Turks. Several European monarchs hoped to extend kingdoms (land), Church Power
What was Medieval literature, art, and architecture characterized by?
Faith and Religion
What were some reasons for the great influence of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages?
The church was the center of religious and social life on the manor, the canon law of the church was a highly effective legal system, and only members of the clergy could administer the sacraments
What was the chief reason for the monastic reform movements in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages?
The desire to eliminate wealth and corruption from the Church
Excommunication, interdict, and the Inquisition were methods used by the Catholic Church to
Enforce religious discipline and fight heresy
What were the causes of the feudalism in Western Europe?
Civil wars and foreign invasions.
Who did the people look to for justice?
People looked to the monarch for justice.
What two things were associated with the feudal contract.
The two things that were associated with the feudal contract were homage and fealty.
What did the alchemists include in the Middle Ages?
Believing that metal could be changed into gold
What was the function of the “missi Dominici” During the rain of Charlemagne’s empire?
To supervise the nobles in charge of local government.
The following could be found on a typical medieval manor…
A system of farming based on leaving one of three fields fallow, communally used workshops, bake ovens, and flour mills, forests and pastures that could be used by the manors inhabitants.
The customs and traditions of the manor did what?
Tended to protect serfs living on medieval manor from ill treatment by an unjust lord.
The ideas of the medieval code of chivalry were-
A knight should fight courageously and by the accepted rules of battle, a night should treat all classes of society with courtesy and kindness, Knights should defend the Catholic Church and its clergy
The hanseatic league was created to..?
Promote trade of cities along the north and Baltic seas.
What was the order of events during the Middle Ages? First crusade, Charlemagne crowned, Magyar invasions
Charlemagne was crowned emperor,Magyar invasions of Europe,first crusade(1095 A.D)
What happened during the reign of Pope Innocent III?
4th crusade that attacked Christian Constintinople
What role did the troubadors play in the Middle Ages?
The troubadors created a literature of chivalry
Was warfare frequent during early Middle Ages?
Yes warfare was common in the early Middle Ages
In what ways did Charlemagne advance learning?
He created a palace school,he brought scholars to live in the court,ordered monasteries to establish schools and libraries
Why could serfs not leave the manor?
They could not leave the manor without the lords permission.
During the 9th century what happened to the empire constructed by Charlemagne?
It Became permanently divided among his descendants
What contribution did the Catholic Church make to society in the Middle Ages?
The feudal manor was….?
What were some of the reasons that feudalism rose in Western Europe?
There was a need for law, order and protection.
What did the breakdown of law and order account for?
Developmental of manorialism in Western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Why was the fief important?
It gave land to the lords
What kingdom did the Frank’s establish?
The following were reasons for the influence of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages
The church was the center of the religious and social life on the manor, the canon law of the church was a highly effective legal system, and the only members of the clergy could administer the sacraments
The power of investiture of bishops was
The issue that caused the conflict between Pope Gregory VII and the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Papal power reached its greatest height during
The reign of Pope Innocent II (1198-1216)
What were the duties of the serfs?
Working on lords lands, paying for the use of the lords mill, paying taxes in the form of farm produce.
Giving assistance to the poor and the sick is a service performed by the medieval church would be performed by whom today?
The US Government
What is a result of the crusades
growth of trade with Middle East
What did Popes and Monarchs disagree about the most
selection of church officials
How was warfare limited in Europe?
by the, “Peace of God”
What were conditions like in Medieval towns?
crowded and unsanitary
What was the path that someone would follow if they wanted to learn and work in a craft?
apprentice, journeyman, master
After the fall of Rome what area did the Franks rule over?
Modern day France, the low countries, and Western Germany
What were some accomplishments of Charlemagne?
He encouraged a revival of greco-roman traditions
What happened in 1261 to Constantinople?
Byzantines/Muslim Turks take it and end the Latin empire
What grew up along trade routes?
Medieval European cities usually grew up along trade routes
What kind of people usually intended to devote their lives to God?
People who joined monasteries during the Middle Ages usually intended to devote their lives to God
What is an accurate description of a Gothic Cathedral?
A stone building with tall spires, large stained-glass windows, and flying buttresses supporting the walls is an accurate description of a Gothic Cathedral
Who worked equally hard on the manor in the European Middle Ages?
Women and men worked equally hard on the manor in the European Middle Ages
What were noble women expected to do in the Middle Ages?
Noble women in the Middle Ages were expected to bear and raise many children
What was one of the results of Charlemagne’s conquests?
The expansion of Christianity
What regulated trade in medieval towns?
Guilds were organized in medieval towns to regulate production or trade
What did Charlemagne do that none others could?
create a strong and stable government, uniting europe
What language was used by scholars and clergy?
What was the black death?
disease that killed millions of Asians and Europeans
What was true about the Catholic Church in Europe do during the middle ages?
It owned a lot of land, It had its own court system, and it could expel people from the church.
Who established what is now France?
In the feudal system WHO couldn’t leave the Manor?
Serfs, unless they got permission from the Lords.
What topics would be included in report about the Middle Ages?
The rise of towns and trade, medieval manors, and the power of the Catholic Church.
What caused the disintegration of Charlemagne’s empire after his death?
Civil wars between his successors.
What did peasants lack on a typical medieval manor?
Lacked incentives to use new farming methods to produce a surplus of crops because the absence of urban markets discouraged the production of a surplus.
European Merchants feared whom?
European Merchants feared that the Seljuk Turks would ruin their trade with the Byzantine Empire.
What was influenced by contact with the Muslim World?
During the Crusades art, architecture, and industries of Europe were influenced, the power of European monarchs was increased at the expense of the nobility, and the Crusader States established in the Middle East were unsuccessful in permanently restoring the Holy Land to Christendom.
What churches had large stained windows?
Large Stained – Glass windows are found in Gothic, but Not Romanesque, Chruches.
Who did King Clovis unite?
King Clovis unites the Franks and conquers most of Gual in the beginning of 481 CE.
Who played an important role in creation of literature of chivalry?
Troubadors played an important role in the Middle Ages by creating a literature of chivalry.
what were the reasons for the 1st Crusade?
Free Holy land from Muslim Turks, extend kingdoms to the East, Merchants feared Turks would ruin trade.
What was one of the benefits of increased Population in Europe during the 11th & 12th centuries?
Increase of trade
Why would people support a strong Monarchy over the feudal system?
a strong central government would promote commerce.
What was the primary function of a craft guild?
setting standards of quality and just prices
What did townspeople demand from their local Lords?
A written charter safeguarding their rights