Whileno cure or totally effective medication has yet been created, there are anumber of memory loss medications with FDA approval and on the market at thistime. These medications can only help manage the symptoms and, in few cases,slow down the rate of progression of the disease. (alzheimers.ie) However, these medications can be unpopularbecause of their unpleasant side effects which can be particularly tough onolder people with the disease. (National institute of aging, 2017)Current medications on the market in the United States of America: Generic name Brand name Approved for Donepezil Aricept All stages Galantamine Razadyne Mild to moderate Revastigmine Exelon Mild to moderate Memantine Namenda Moderate to severe Donepezil + Memantine Namzaric Moderate to severe (alz.org)Donepezil:Used to treat the symptoms ofAlzheimer’s by improving memory of patients, However, does not slowdown or stopthe disease in any way. Galantamine:Used to treat Alzheimer’s and variousother central nervous system diseases.
This drug is isolated from plants fromthe Amaryllidaceae family such as theCaucasian snowdrop, the daffodil and the red spider lily. Revastigmine:Used fthe treatment of mild to moderate due to Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’sdisease. The drug can be administered via transdermal patch which can lessenthe intensity of the side effects. the latter form reduces the prevalence ofside effects. Memantine:Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. This drug has also been used to treatpatients with anxiety disorders, ADHD, OCD and various other neurologicaldisorders. Fig.
3.) Chemical formula: C12H21N The first three drugs on this list, Donepezil,Galantamine and Revastigmine are all from a class of drugs which are called acetylcholinesteraseinhibitor. Cholinesteraseinhibitors are drugs that stop or impede enzymes from breaking downacetylcholine when it is transported from one cell to another. This means thatthe acetylcholine, which is in short supply in people with Alzheimer’s disease,is not destroyed so quickly and there is more chance of it being passed on tothe next nerve cell. Cholinesterase inhibitors result in higher concentrationsof acetylcholine, leading to increased communication between nerve cells, whichin turn, may temporarily improve or stabilise the symptoms of dementia.
Somepeople who take cholinesterase inhibitors experience side-effects. Side-effectsfrom these drugs are most common when someone first administers them but,fortunately, they often settle down with time. The most likely side effects arediarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, lowered blood pressure, insomnia,fatigue and loss of appetite. Other reported side effects include falls anddizziness. If the dose is increased gradually the likelihood of side effects islower. When prescribing these drugs, the doctor must ensure they are aware ofthe patient’s medical history because they can be harmful in people with ahistory of peptic ulcers, asthma, liver or kidney disease, or a very slow heartrate. (dementia australia, 2006) The fourth drug on the list, Memantine, is a different typeof drug which acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. (what typeof drug memantine is) Bibliography alz.
Medications for memory loss. Retrieved from alz.org: https://www.alz.
org/alzheimers_disease_standard_prescriptions.asp alzheimers.ie. (n.d.). Treating dementia. Retrieved from alzheimers.
aspx dementia australia. (2006). Drug treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. Retrieved from https://www.
dementia.org.au/files/helpsheets/Helpsheet-DementiaQandA01-CholinesteraseInhibitors_english.pdf National institute of aging. (2017, may 18). How is alzheimer’s disease treated. Retrieved from nia.
nih.gov: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/how-alzheimers-disease-treated Picture references:Fig.1) Whatis Donepezil.
Retrieved from http://donepezil.com/Fig.2 What are Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Retrievedfrom https://peaknootropics.com/using-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-nootropics/