While taking this class I have learnedso much about the world around us and how we got to where we are today. A lot of what has gone on in our world inprevious centuries and years has led us to here today and creating theorganizations, political parties and more.
In Europe there are fourphysiographic regions which include Northern Europe, Southern Europe, CentralEurope, and Western Europe and are usually used more for identification thanfor regional study. First, let’s talkabout Northern Europe. Northern Europeprimarily includes Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. People who live in these regions oftendescribe them as the Nordic Countries.
Norway, Sweden and Denmark referring to the Nordic Countries speakmostly the German language. For peoplewho live in these countries usually practice Protestant Christianity as theirprimary religion since about 1000 CE. Inrecent years though, the Lutheran Church has usually been the statechurch. In this area there are many waysto get people, goods and materials out to other areas, countries andregions.
The main way is using theBaltic Sea. There was a more modernbridge built across Denmark to Sweden over the Baltic Sea which helped toincrease the effortlessness of getting people, goods and materials to themainland of Europe and to other areas. Lastly, with Finland being in Northern Europe they are a big producer ofand resource of timber.
Next, Southern Europe includes three large peninsulas thatextend into the Mediterranean Sea and into the Atlantic Ocean. There is a large mountain range inSouthern Europe called the Pyrenees mountain range that separates the IberianPeninsula from France. In Northern Italythey have the biggest metropolitan city of Milan which isan anchor for the global industrial and financial sector in the Lombardy regionof the country. The city of Milan is atthe core industrial center for the nation and for Europe overall. With Milan having a very large metropolitanarea, Milan has a very long history as a center of industry and power. Outof all the countries in Southern Europe, Spain remains the most diverse withthe most number of distinct ethnic groups.
Many of the countries have very distinct heritage and culture. Probably one of the most noted cities in the regionis Vatican City which is home to the Pope, who is head of the Roman CatholicChurch. After Southern Europe we come toCentral Europe or Western Europe as some people refer to the region. One of the most interesting facts aboutSouthern Europe is that they are the only country with coastlines on both theAtlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Being along both of those bodies of water has a directadvantage to them as they are in the core economic region and have a stabledemocratic government. Anotherthing that Central Europe has going for them economically is the port of Rotterdamwhich is the busiest port in the Netherlands. This allows many goods and materials to be imported and exported at theport. Another, historical fact aboutSouthern Europe is the Iron Curtain that separated East Germany and West Germanduring World War II. Both countries werevery much still divided until about 1990 when they were reunited and the IronCurtain and the Berlin Wall came crashing down. The mandate system was firstestablished by the Covenant of the League of Nations to help stop war andfighting over land that didn’t belong to other countries by taking over theland of the failed Ottoman Empire and the colonies of Germany. When the mandates were first originated therewere three different classifications. The mandate classifications were Class A Mandate, Class B Mandate, andClass C Mandate.
All of the countriesthat were previously controlled by other states that were defeated by World WarI, which were Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire Moving onto the Russian Empire, somany events have occurred between the 15th century and 1904 thatshaped the Russian Empire and who they are. At the beginning of the 15th centuryMuscovite princes made a policy of “gathering the Russian lands,” which was adrive to annex all East Slavic lands. The in 1547, Grand Prince Ivan IV(The Terrible) was the first ruler to be named Tsar. Next, in line in 1613 to be Tsar came MichaelRomanov. Byelecting Michael Romanov ended a long period of instability and foreignintervention. Then in 1721,Russia acquired the modern Estonia and Latvia which ended decades of war withSweden.
When this happened navalpresence was established in the Baltic Sea. Another great accomplishment in Russian history was between 1798-1815. At this time Russia took part inthe European coalition against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. This defeated Napolean’s invasion in 1812,ultimately overthrowing Napolean from his reign. After many years in Russia, they suffered anobstacle when they attempted to take territoryfrom declining Ottoman Empire through the defeat in the Crimean War from 1853to 1857.
Then, while some states inRussia had already been annexed, Kazakh steppes and Central Asian Muslim becamethe next states to become annexed in 1864-1865. Another important time in Russia was when the Marxis Social DemocraticParty was founded in 1897, but then in 1903 they split into Menshevik and moreradical Bloshevik fanction. Lastly, in1904-1905, Russia expanded into Manchuria which lead to war with Japan.