Work-family two domains, on the strength of the borders,

Topic: BusinessComparative Analysis
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Last updated: October 25, 2019

Work-family conflict is a advancing for modernsociety, in a huge majority of men and women tells that work interferes withtheir family responsibilities (Glavin & Schieman, 2012). Work–familyconflict refers to an ill-assorted or incompatibility between the work andfamily role demands. Therefore, the work-family relationship has been creatingas a bi-directional construct where work roles impacts on family roles, workcan reinforce family well-being and positive aspects of family life can fix intowork place.

Then, a concept of work-life combination should depict moreflexible boundaries where individuals have greater influence on the definitionof their work and non work lives. The choice of plan is to handle the work-familyconflict is dependent on the recognized differences between the two domains, onthe strength of the borders, which are resolved by their permeability andflexibility (Saucan et al., 2015). Work-family conflict collects widespread attentionin modern society beyond human resources management, huge researches in thisarea different studies report inconsistent and even contradictory findings onthe effects and intensity of work family conflict. Additionally, the overlap intime and place between traditional family and work roles may also introduce newopportunities for work-family conflict to manifest in people’s everyday lives(Yili Liu & Lina Zhou., 2017).  Work-family conflict isdefined as the pressure produced by different demands from work and family domains,where the pressure from both work and family domains are ill-matched in someregard (Restubog et al, 2011).

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 Work-familyconflict is started because of the different work and family demographic trendsin the United States and around the globe, including growing numbers of motherswith children under 18 in the labor force; the rapid rise in elder care demandsdue to an aging population; and an increase in men’s involvement with familycare giving demands, particularly in developed Western countries (Kossek & Malaterre,2013). Work-family conflictaffects most of the society. Even without married people and those withoutchildren will complain having some work-family conflict as all individuals (Casper,Weltman, & Kwesiga, 2007). Work-life conflict is a part of work-familyconflict image the reality that the work role may interfere with family’ otherpersonal life events and interests. With the family role (Kossek, 2016). Whilefor many employees work-family conflict is a key factor use the term “work-lifeconflict” to show the many extra non-work demands in individual’s lives thatare not confined to those involving the family (Wilson & Baumann, 2015).

Areal number of work family research based on a conflict situation, where thedemands of work and family are observed as opposed because of conflicts causedby time, behavior, or strain (Ruppanner, 2013). In recent years, researchers differently measuredwork-family conflict first, it was measured in a simpler way, in which they measuringthe conflict that occurs when work is interfered with family just now,researchers starts to identify the double nature of work–family conflict bymeasuring both possible directions the interference of work with family andalso of family with work (Hytti et al., 2015). In othercountries some researchers indicated that work–family conflict could positivelyaffect turnover intention. Researchers also tell that  there were neither direct nor indirectrelationships between work–family conflict and turnover intention (Armstrong etal., 2015). Both work and family responsibilities is a problem for many workersin these days, whether employed or self-employed. Workers have different rolesin the work and family domains.

When these roles are mutually incompatible insome way, a form of inter-role con?ict arises this may take the form ofwork-to-family con?ict or family-to-work con?ict (Annink et al., 2016). Workers especially women and/orparents often believe that self-employment will ease the pressure of combiningwork and family Self-employment enables workers to combine income, ?exibilityand control over their work and childcare (Sullivan and Meek 2012). Theimportance of preventing WFC is acknowledged by the European Union, who setsguidelines for support. However, although governments are giving increasinglyattention to reconciling paid employment and parenting, research shows thosearrangements for the self-employed lag behind those for employees and that theydiffer across European countries (Annink et al. 2015). They originate that ifthe job demands are high it create conflicts between work and family life andthey are negatively associate to work–life balance. However, they also foundthat the level of job control hardly varies among the self-employed.

This isnot unpredicted, as job control is related toindividual’s management and performance, which can be seen as inherent toself-employment (Nordenmark et al. 2012). The life-course aspects provide a uniqueframework and concepts such as historical time, transitions, or linked lives toexamine work-family conflict. Contemporary workers are less probable to spendtheir whole career and regularly advance in one organization, and feel securein their jobs than workers from previous decades. Yet they are more likely tocustomize their timing of retirement, pursue flexible work arrangements such asreduced workload and timework, and seek work-family balance (Greenhaus , 2014). One main methodological issue is construct overlap, such as thework-family conflict and work-life conflict issues noted earlier. Work-familyconflict and work-family balance are also closely comparable concepts.

Whilethere seems to be a agreement between scholars that work-family balance isdistinct from work-family conflict, empirical evidence is scarce (Greenhaus& Allen, 2010). Neuroticism had the strongest positive relationship withboth work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among the big five personalitycharacteristics. While agreeableness and conscientiousness were negativelyassociated with work-family conflict, extraversion and openness to experiencewere not (Kossek, Ruderman, Braddy, and Hannum 2012). Work-Family Conflict is animportant line of inquiry in organizational behavior and human resourcemanagement research. The topic is relevant to the computing and communicationfield not only because modern communication technologies allow for moreintegration of work and family roles than ever before but because recentadvances in computing technology offer new ways to respond to and understandwork-family conflict (Maertz & Boyar 2016). For all peoples work and familyare two important domains, work family conflict is experienced when there isconflict between pressures in other domain. Work family conflict can be classifiedinto time- and strain based categories, along with others.

Specifically, thetime devoted to and the strain produced by work make it difficult to fulfillrequirements of family and vice versa (Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010). Work family conflict has beenempirically linked with employees’ job and life dissatisfaction, poor physicaland psychological health, and rising voluntary turnover rates and work stress(Cheng et al., 2015). While it is obviously of interest to know whetherinter-role conflicts are connected with the health, it is of equal importanceto explore potential antecedents of work and family conflicts in employees withspinal cord injury and their partners with care giving duty. There is twospeci?c aspects that may have a role in the presence of conflicts, namely theamount of engagement in productive activities (e.g.

, paid work, care giving)and socioeconomic circumstances (e.g., level of income, education) Conflictsbetween work and family life probably result from an interplay between one’sown and one ‘s partners ‘ participation in productive activities. For instance,the participation of both members of a couple in paid works may exacerbateinter-role conflicts as both have less time resources for family life (Feketeet al., 2017).

Significant effort has gone toward trying to understand theantecedents and role of work family conflict. Research shows individualattributes and experience effect perception of work family conflict, with twosignificant implications for the dynamics of work family conflict. Differentindividuals may respond to the same work family conflict differently, and individualsmay react to the same work family conflict differently over time through theirattempts to cope with work family conflict and their changing situations (Carret al., 2014). Percentage of working women is increasing in day to day life,which is turn enhances the responsibility of women in both private and outsideworld. So naturally the conflict appears, when they try to balance between workand family. If these roles are not managed, it starts to work family conflictwhich creates stress between employees. Employees try to satisfy the increasingwork role and as well as family responsibilities too.

Work family conflict isrelated to stress and psychological strain (Poelmans as cited in Ragles, 2016).Most researches in the area of work family conflict and organizational rolestress is conveying in various group of occupations via students, teachers andpolice. Role stress influences the job satisfaction among the employees(Armstrong et al., 2015).  Typesof work-family conflict.   Workfamily conflict can exist in two ways work can interfere with family (WIF) andfamily can interfere with work (FIW). Carlson et al.

(1998) suggested sixdimensions of work-family conflict. WIF and FIW each have three sub dimensionstime, strain, and behavior-based types of conflict. Time-based conflict happenswhen the time demands of one role are ill-matched with those of another. Thesecond form is strain-based conflict, starts when strain in one domaininfluence with the other domain. The third form, behavior-based conflict,happens when behavior pattern allocate to one domain are arrogate in another(Aisyah et al., 2011).   Time based conflict.

   Timeis an important aspect that has been linked with conflict (Greenhaus as citedin fang, 2017). He reported time-based conflict as numerous roles may challengefor a person’s time. Time used on activities within one role generally cannotbe faithful to activities within another role. Therefore, in the same timeperiod an employee cannot satisfy both roles, because they both influencingeach other time-based conflict is stable with excessive work time and scheduleconflict, as well as role overload there is two type of time-based conflict.First, demands of time linked withone role’s membership may make it physically impossible to obey withexpectations arising from another, for example an employee might have a lot ofwork at workplace or stay late at work for completing a project, therefore thatthing make it physically awkward to spend time with the family (Tang et al,2015).Second, time demands may alsocreate an obsession with one role even if an individual is physicallyattempting to meet another role’s demands (Huang et al.

, 2012). For instanceone employee has a big project to complete and the same time he comes home tospend time with the family, and just thinking about the project (Matthews etal., 2011). Strain-basedconflict.   Asecond type of work-family conflict happens when the strain from one domainbecomes incompatible to safe the requirements of another domain. Strain maydecrease personal resources that are needed for role responsibilities, forinstance when there is fatigue of work experiencing by a person, because oflong working hours may he shift that to the family domain and reduce his/herenergy for family responsibilities (Ragles & Sakthivel, 2016). Strain thatwe practice in one role may span and starts to influence with other role forexample if one become stressed of having child which is sick, it affects theattentiveness level at work place. If one practice occupational role conflict,role ambiguity at work and overloaded of work then he may face work stress atwork place (Cowlishaw et al.

, 2012).  Behavior basedconflict.  Behavior based conflict is a third type of work-family conflict. It isstart when person can’t balance behavior in order to meet the demands of twodifferent role behaviors.

That is true that behavior in one domain influencethe performance in other domain. An immediate form of this conflict is when aperson has difficulty in combining a logical and managerial attitude at workwith a sensitive and shared attitude with the family (Frone, 2005). Accordingto Bellavia and Frone, (2005), males are high on facing work-family conflictthen females, while females are high on facing Family-to-work conflict thenmales. There is difference between energy-base and strain-base conflict. Theoriesof work-family conflict.   Numeroustheories have been used to explain the process that how work-family conflictlinked to other variables. Grant-Vallone and Donaldson (2001) stated expressthat research that examines work family conflict has advanced over the lastdecade by the development of theoretical models, empirical studies, andorganizational sponsored work-family initiatives. Role conflict theory.

   Therole conflict theory states that experiencing doubtfulness or conflict within arole will result in an undesirable state. Because conflicting demands betweenroles (e.g.

, time, incompatible behaviors) conduct to personal conflict, itbecomes harder to perform each role successfully (Grandey & Cropanzano ascited in Ashley, 2017).  “Role strain ortrouble in meeting role demands is assured” and a person “must frequently makesrole decisions and agreements in order to meet role requirement. Although some authors have used roleconflict theory and role theory as evidently replaceable frameworks, there aredefinite differences between them.

The role conflict theory outlines a deeperand more specific framework that provides a richer understanding of variouswork-family conflict forms, directions, and dimensions; these details are notpresented in other theoretical frameworks. In addition, researchers (e.g.,Duxbury, Higgins, & Mills, 1992). Claimed that to understand work-familyconflict both directions (work interference with family and family interferencewith work) must be examine. Spillover theory.

   Spillovertheory describes work effect in family life. Positive spillover is declaredwhen the fulfillment, passion, happiness, and refreshment an individual has atwork crosses over into positive feelings and energy at home or when positivesatisfaction, energy, and happiness from home crosses over to a positiveexperience at work (Sthapit & Bjork, 2017). Negative spillover from work tofamily is express when the problems, conflicts, or energy at work has tense andengaged an individual, making it difficult to participate in family lifeeffectively and positively (Young & Rim, 2017). Of course, negativespillover from family to work (e.g., divorce, problems with children, or thedeath of a close friend or family member) can also be damaging. Gender role theories.

  Thistheory find to explain gender differences in work family life. Three of thefamiliar gender theories that represent three different sets of assumptions arethe biological influences, childhood socialization processes, and socialstructural factors in society. According to Way (1991), “biological influencestheory advance that sex differences in attitudes, abilities, and temperamentsare innate and that these innate differences cause males and females to be differentiallysuited for certain work and family roles”. According to the childhoodsocialization theories, formed and empirical  personality differences lead males and femalesto choose and even prefer different social roles. Role theory.    Anotherframework for exploring work-family conflict is the general role theory. Itintroduce to a set of behaviors that have socially agreed-upon functions and anaccepted code of norms.

Normal roles include spouse, parent, manager, employee,church member, student, friend, and more. Roles can represent relationships orfunctions, and they are necessary for the achievement of goals and themaintenance of group unity. A role set is the entire mixture of roles a personoccupies or plays at one time. Strain can occur when there are conflictingand/or competing demands made by two or more roles held by one person. Roletheory conveys that multiple roles can lead to stressors (work overload andinter role conflict) and, in turn, to symptoms of strain (Britton, 2017).

Workoverload raise to expectations that can lead to an increase in workload andpossible feelings of overload within the work or non work domains. Inter roleconflict refers primarily to the conflict between the roles. As mentionedpreviously, role theory has a much larger and general scope regardingwork-family conflict as compared to the role conflict theory. Although oneportion of the role theory focuses on role conflict, it does not provide thedetailed description of the related components as found in the role conflicttheory. Interesting, some authors occasionally infer that role conflict theoryis one construct within the broader role theory framework.Identity theory.

   “Identity theory support that individuals seekto build desired images of themselves, and anything that blocks creation ofthese directed images represents a threat to self identification. Becauseconflict between work and family roles constitutes an obstacle to goals ofself-fulfillment, threats resulting from work-family conflict likely lead tojob stress” (Gruber & Macmillan, 2017). Introduce that work-family conflictrepresents a, “risk or obstacle to self-identification because it representsthe degree to which work activities are blocked or reserved by pressures andresponsibilities at home and vice versa” . People are threatened when obstacles to activities that have potentialimplications for identity damage their self-image. Identity theory differs fromrole conflict theory and role theory because its basic property is much broaderthan its use in this specific context.

There are various psychologicalfunctions that are served by developing a sense of identity (i.e., basic needfor self-esteem or self-enhancement; basic need for self-efficacy which isrelated to the sense of personal competence and control; and it allows for thedevelopment of self-consistency or coherence). There are many other constructsthat can threaten or impede an individual’s ideal or perceived personalidentity, role conflict or work-family conflict being just a few. 

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