world history ch 2

Topics: ArtSymbolism

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Last updated: November 29, 2019

the act of setting free
emancipation

money available for investment
capital

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method of production in which tasks are completed by individuals in their rural homes
cottage industry

indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration
secularization

an intellectual movement that stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
romanticism

a political philosophy holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
liberalism

reliance on military strength
militarism

movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray life as it really was
realism

the right of all males to vote in elections
universal male suffrage

a person interested in finding new business opportunities
entrepreneur

the ability to read
literacy

the working class
proletariat

organized persecution or massacre of a minority group, especially Jews
pogrom

a method by which the therapist and patient probe deeply into the patient’s memory
psychoanalysis

the Russian legislative assembly
Duma

the movement for women’s rights
feminism

form of government in which a person or small group has absolute power
dictatorship

a Marxist who rejected the revolutionary approach
revisionist

a movement in which writers and artists rebelled against the traditional literary and artistic styles
modernism

the idea that the prime minister is responsible to the elected body and not the executive officer
ministerial responsibility

Analyze how the industrialization of Europe affected the societies of Europe.
Industrialization had many effects on society in the 19th and 19th centuries. The creation of new machinery and factories created job opportunities and the ability to transport raw materials. Industrialization also led to urbanization, which created overcrowding in cities. Many urban areas were overrun with dirty and unhealthy living conditions causing diseases and other health problems.

Compare and contrast the major revolutions of 1848.
The revolutions of 1848 were all based on forces of liberalism and nationalism trying to overtake the forces of traditional conservatism. The French were the first to revolt, when untold hardship was brought to the lower classes while the middle classes were fighting for the right to vote. The government refused to make changes and was overthrown in 1848. After hearing of the French Revolution, many cries for change led German rulers to promise constitutions, a free press, and jury trials. The newly established Frankfurt Assembly made an effort in the right direction, but ultimately failed in unifying the German states. In the Austrian Empire, a collection of different peoples were fighting for their own independence.

Austrian officials eventually took charge and subdued them one by one. The revolutions in the Austrian Empire failed. None of the many small revolutions in the Italian states proved to be successful. However, even with the reestablishment of the conservative governments, nationalism and liberalism continued to influence political events.

Compare and contrast the Romanticism and Realism movements in literature and the arts
Romanticism was based on feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing.

They valued individualism and uniqueness with an interest in the past. Much of the literature was exotic and unfamiliar, with poetry being one of their favorite outlets of expression. Romantic art was known for expressing warmth and emotion, as well as a passion for color. Realism, the belief that the weld should be viewed realistically, is a a whole other story.

Realists wanted to write about ordinary ordinary characters from actual life rather than romantic heroes in exotic settings. Realist artists tended to show the everyday life of ordinary people, and the world of nature with photographic realism.

Describe the social structure that emerged after the second industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution brought with it a new social class, as working conditions were poor and called for change. The upper middle class was made up of bankers, industrial leaders, and large-scale commerce. Below the upper middle class was a middle group that included lawyers, doctors, members of the civil service, business managers, engineers, architects, accountants, and chemists. Below this comfortable living group sat the lower middle class of shopkeepers, traders, and prosperous peasants.

The revolution produced a group of white-collered workers between the lower middle class and the lower classes with traveling salespeople, bookkeepers, telephone operators, department store salespeople, and secretaries. Although not highly paid, these workers were often committed to middle-class ideals. Below the middle classes were the working classes.

The urban working class consisted of many skilled artisans and semi- skilled laborers. At the bottom of this class were the unskilled laborers.

Briefly describe the modernism movement as it relates to literature, painting, architecture, and music. Be sure to include any key figures in these fields.
Within the modernism movement, the big change in literature came with the introduction of symbolism. In painting, the belief that the goal of art was to represent reality had lost much of its meaning with the spread of photography.

Now artists started painting in abstract and with impressionism, rather than attempting to portray reality. Modernism revolutionized architecture, and gave a rise to a principle known as functionalism. This is the idea that buildings should be functional, with all unnecessary ornamentation stripped away.

By 1914, trade unions had
bettered both the living and working conditions of the working class.

__________ developed a steam engine that could drive machinery.
James Watt

Symbolists believed that the world was a collection of symbols that
reflected the true reality, which was the individual human mind.

Functionalism is the idea that
buildings, like the products of machines, should be useful and lack unnecessary ornamentation.

__________’s discovery of radium changed the world’s view of the atom.
Marie Curie

The constitution of the new imperial Germany led by BLANK had two legislative houses, the lower house being elected by universal male suffrage.
Otto Von Bismark

The light bulb was invented by the American inventor
Thomas Edison

The composer who is considered the bridge between the classical and romantic periods in music is
Ludwig Van Beethoven

Czar BLANK made wide ranging reforms in Russia, in particularly, freeing the Russian serfs.
Alexander II

The BLANK stated that the great powers had the right to send armies into countries where revolutions had occurred in order to restore what they say as the legitimate governments.
Principle of Intervention

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