in the United States and Europe in the 1920s, a rebellious young woman
a ban on the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the U.S.
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from 1920 to 1933
Describe the Jazz Age and some of the reactions to it
Some people embraced rebelliousness and experimentation, symbolized by the new sound of jazz. Meanwhile, others supported the Prohibition amendment, and fundamentalists supported traditional Christian ideas
an African American cultural movement in the 1920s and 1930s, centered in Harlem
How did postwar authors show disillusionment with prewar institutions?
by writing about the horrors of modern warfare, and by experimenting with new styles of writing
a method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders
How did scientific discoveries in the 1920s change people’s view of the world?
Atomic research changed the Newtonian view of science and led to the development of atomic weapons; the discovery of penicilian paved the way for antibiotics; Freud’s ideas revolutionaized psychology
style of art composed of lines, colors, and shapes, sometimes with no recognizable subject matter at all
artistic movement in which artists rejected tradition and produced works that often shocked their viewers
artistic movement that attempts to portray the workings of the unconscious mind
What effect did World War I have on art movements in the 1920s?
Artists rejected traditional representations and began to look for new and modern ways of expression
Freud’s ideas led to a method of understanding the mind called?A. dadaB. ProhibitionC. surrealismD.
In the postwar atmosphere of ___, women began to work as reporters or novelists, and they became golfers and tennis players.A. speakeasiesB.
emancipationC. stream of consciousnessD. flapper
Because not everyone approved of the freewheeling lifestyle of the jazz age, some conservatives responded with?A. ProhibitionB. the Harlem RenaissanceC. surrealismD. stream of consciousness
What type of artwork was composed only of lines, colors, and shapes, sometimes with no recognizable subject matter at all?A.
FlapperB. AbstractC. DadaD. Surreal
Which term describes the cultural awakening during which African American writers and artists expressed their pride in their unique culture?A. stream of consciousnessB. abstractC. the Harlem RenaissanceD.
Literature in the postwar period reflected writers’ loss of faith in?A. stream of consciousnessB. surrealismC. western civilizationD. human nature
Jazz was pioneered by?A. MexicansB. African AmericansC.
Which German born physicist advanced the theories of relativity?A. Marie CurieB. Leon BlumC. Sigmund FreudD. Albert Einstein
After World War I, women in many western countries?A. were given the right to work outside the homeB. gained the right to voteC.
were allowed to work in all of the same fields as menD. began to earn equal pay for equal work
One opposing reaction to the freedoms and looseness of morals of the jazz age was the rise of?A. the artwork of the fauvesB.
musicians improvising endless subtle variations in their musicC. emancipated women known as flappersD. Christian fundamentalist movements
What political issues did each of the three democracies face after World War I?
Great Britain faced political division and the demands of the Irish for self-government. France was plaqued by political divisions and financial scandals. The United States had to deal with the fear of radicalism and growing demands for limits on immigration
massive fortifications built by the French along their border with Germany in the 1930s to protect against invasion
an international agreement, signed by almost every nation in 1928, to stop using war as a method of national policy
reduction of armed forces and weapons
strike by workers in many different industries at the same time
How did the war and its peace treaties affect the international economy?
The cycle of war debt and reparations made Europe’s economic recovery shaky, while the United States boomed
condition in which production of goods exceeds the demand for them
the management of money matters including the circulation of money, loans, investments, and banking
central banking system of the United States, which regulates banks
a painful time of global economic collapse, starting in 1929 and lasting until about 1939
How did the Federal Reserve’s policies affect the Great Depression?
The policies made people less likely to invest, which further hurt demand and eventually contributed to the closure of many banks and businesses
Franklin D. Rooselvelt
FDR; the 32nd President of the United States, presided over the nation’s response to the Great Depression and World War II
a massive package of economic and social programs established by FDR to help Americans during the Great Depression
How did the government of the United States react to the Depression?
At first, by providing only minimal assistance, but under Roosevelt’s New Deal, jobs were created, farmers received aid, Social Security was introduced, and the stock market regulated
To protect themselves from German invasion, the French built the?A. Maginot LineB.
Kellogg-Briand PactC. New DealD. Federal Reserve
Which phrase best describes the Great Depression?A. the management of money matters including the circulation of money, loans, investment, and banking B. a time of global economic collapseC. a condition in which the production of goods exceeds the demand for themD.
a massive package of economic and social programs
An affluent nation is a country that is?A. poor and destituteB. developingC. rich and wealthyD. not industrialized
In 1926, a ___lasted nine days and involved some three million workers.A. Kellogg-Briand PactB.
disarmamentC. Great DepressionD. general strike
Better technology allowed factories to make more products faster during a time when people were buying less, which resulted in?A. overproductionB.
general strikeC. disarmamentD. finance
What was one aspect of Franklin D.
Roosevelt’s policies to combat the Great Depression?A. Roosevelt reduced the size of the governmentB. Roosevelt asked for financial assistance from European countriesC. Roosevelt introduced the New DealD. Roosevelt asked Congress to abolish the personal income tax
How did Congress respond to the “Red Scare?”A. Congress ratified a bill to send military assistance to GermanyB.
Congress passed laws limiting immigration from EuropeC. Congress had all foreign born immigrants deported from the United StatesD. Congress passed laws to safeguard nuclear weapons
Which crisis in finance triggered the Great Depression?A. many businesses began to closeB. World War II beganC. the New York Stock Exchange crashedD. American banks demanded repayment of foreign loans
During the 1920s, the Locarno treaties indicated?A.
the need for an arms raceB. the weakness of the world economyC. a growing pessimismD. the hope that there would be world peace
Why didn’t Great Britain agree with France’s desire to enforce the Versailles Treaty strickly and complete payment of reparations?A. Great Britain wanted to see Germany return to its prewar position of powerB. Great Britain wanted to develop a secret alliance with Germany, preventing France from strengthening its militaryC.
Great Britain feared that if Germany became too weak, the Soviet Union and France would become too powerfulD. Great Britain wanted the League of Nations to make all decisions regarding individual countries
became a dictator of italy, organized veterans and other discontented italian’s into the fascist party
any member of the militant combat squads of Italian Fascists set up under Mussolini
March on Rome
planned march of thousands of Fascist supporters to take control of Rome; in response Mussolini was given the legal right to control Italy
How did postwar disillusionment contribute to Mussolini’s rise?
it united Italians in their desire for a new, more effective government, however aggressive
How did the Fascist party transform Italy’s government and economy?
Fascist rule changed Italy’s government to a dictatorship upheld by terror, and brought the economy under state control and altered domestic life
government in which a one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives
any centralized, authoritarian government system that is not communist whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are destructive to basic human rights
Describe the similarities between fascism and communism.
intense loyalty to government or leader, use of terror, promotion of social change
Mussolini’s “combat squad” supporters were known as the?A. ideologyB. totalitarian stateC. Black ShirtsD. March on Rome
Which phrase best describes the term ideology?A. a centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state over the individualB.
announce officiallyC. a system of ideas that guides an individual, movement, or political programD. a one-party dictatorship that attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens
Mussolini was responsible for building the first?A. totalitarian stateB. March on RomeC.
ideologyD. II Duce
When Fascists in Italy made a bid for power, tens of thousands participated in the?A. totalitarian stateB.
Proclamation of NaplesC. March on RomeD. Black Shirts
Mussolini coined the term?A. totalitarian stateB. Vatican CityC.
Italians accepted the use of violence by the Fascists because?A. they had lost faith in constitutional governmentB. it was used sparinglyC.
the Fascists were less ruthless than the leaders of the constitutional governmentD. they wanted to see the Church restored to power in Italy
After World War I, which of the following was a problem Italy faced?A. high unemployment and high taxesB.
unrest in their new territory on the AdriaticC. overproductionD. strict government control
Mussolini gained power by promising to?A. grant independence to Italian coloniesB. share power with the CommunistsC.
end corruption and replace turmoil with orderD. give every Italian a free college education
What was most important to the Fascists?A. agricultureB. the individualC. MarxismD. the state
Which is NOT true of Fascism?A.
Fascists reject democracyB. Fascism is rooted in extreme nationalismC. Fascists value individual rightsD. Fascists believe in aggressive foreign expansion
system in which government officials make all basic economic decisions
large farm owned and operated by peasants as a group
wealthy peasant in the Soviet Union in the 1930s
How did Stalin take control of the Soviet Union’s economic life?
Stalin’s government took control of all businesses, distributed all resources, and made all basic economic decisions
in the Soviet Union, a system of forced labor camps in which millions of criminals and political prisoners were held under Stalin
In what ways did Stalin’s terror tactics harm the Soviet Union?
the country lost many of its intellectual and military leaders
artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light
making a nationality’s culture more ethnically Russian
belief that there is no god
How did Stalin use censorship and propaganda to support his rule?
Stalin used censorship and propaganda to glorify his work and stifle those who did not agree with him
How did Communist schools benefit the state and the Communist party?
schools taught communist values but also gave more students opportunities for higher education and extracurricular programs
Communist International, International association of communist parties led by the Soviet Union for the purpose of encouraging worldwide communist revolution
How did the Soviet Union’s foreign policy goals contradict one another?
by aiding revolutionary groups in other countries and urging colonial peoples to rise up against imperialist powers, the Soviet Union also undermined potential trade relationships
Which phrase best describes the Gulag?A.
large farms owned and operated by peasants as a groupB. an organization of wealthy farmersC. a system of brutal labor campsD. organizations aiding revolutionary groups around the world
In accordance with the ideas of Marx, ___became an official state policy.A. kulaksB.
atheismC. accessD. conform
Which phrase best defines the term conform?A. making a nationality’s culture more RussianB. to obey a set of standardsC. an artistic style whose goal was to show Soviet life in a positive mannerD. a belief that there is no god
Stalin believed that ___were resisting collectivization by killing farm animals and burning crops.A.
the kulaksB. the collectivesC. the gulagsD. the Comintern
The Soviet Union developed a ___in which government officials made all basic economic decisions.
A. socialist realismB. CominternC. command economyD. russification
Which of the following statements about peasants under Stalin’s regime is true?A. Peasants were given unlimited access to farm suppliesB. Peasants were given the same opportunities as other citizensC.
Peasants were forced to give up their private plots of landD. Peasants were allowed to sell the products produced on their land for a profit
What was daily life like for the average Russian under Stalin?A. people worked fewer hours and had a higher standard of livingB. workers were not allowed to take vacationsC.
housing, meat, fresh food, and clothes were scarceD. farmworkers were not permitted to travel to the cities without a pass
What were the public “show trials” in Moscow between 196 and 1938?A. Stalin’s officials were put on trial for the deaths of some four million people during the Great PurgeB. since there was no free press, “show trials” were fake trials publicized to encourage obedience to StalinC. immigrant farmers were put on trial for insisting on their own land with Russian bordersD. trials in which former Communist leaders confessed to crimes after officials tortured them or threatened their families
What was one unintentional result of Stalin’s purges?A. Stalin increased his power through his terror tacticsB.
Stalin got rid of many of the nation’s most skilled and talented workers, soldiers, and thinkersC. Stalin got rid of any rivals who were plotting against himD. Stalin discouraged the people’s dissent
How did Stalin build up a “cult of personality” around himself?A.
Stalin used propagandaB. Stalin began to visit the collective farmsC. Stalin presided over the show trials as chief justiceD. Stalin began to travel to western nations
the highest official of a monarch, prime minister
coal-rich industrial region of Germany
What political and economic problems did the Weimar Republic face?
The Weimar Republic was torn apart by extreme competing parties and conflict with France over the Versailles Treaty. Economically, the republic was troubled by runaway inflation in the 1920s and depression in the 1930s.
Describe the Nazi party’s ideology and Hitler’s plans for ruling Germany.
The Nazi party’s ideology was based on anti-Semitism, pride in Germany’s past, and revenge for the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler planned to defy the Versailles Treaty, create jobs, and bring Germany back to greatness
official name of the Nazi party for its regime in Germany; held power from 1933 to 1945
secret police in Nazi Germany
laws approved by the Nazi Party in 1935, depriving Jews of German citizenship and taking some rights away from them
How did the Nazi party maintain its control of Germany?
The Nazi party maintained power by keeping some of Hitler’s promises and brutally cracking down on dissent
Why did authoritarian states rise in Eastern Europe after World War I?
Economic problems, ethnic tensions, and inexperience in democracy fostered the rise of authoritarian states in Eastern Europe
In the Weimar Republic, the parliamentary system was led by a?A.
regimeB. chancellorC. GestapoD. passive
Hitler’s secret police were known as the?A. GestapoB.
regimeC. Third ReichD. Nuremberg Laws
What type of resistance involves nonviolent means by its participants?A. active resistanceB. general strikesC. riotingD. passive resistance
The ___deprived Jews of Germany citizenship and placed severe restrictions on them?A. Nuremberg LawsB.
GestapoC. Ruhr ValleyD. Chancellor
German workers in the ___refused to work when the French occupied the area.A. regimeB. Third ReichC. GestapoD. Ruhr Valley
What was one reason that the Weimar Republic failed?A.
The Weimar Republic took the blame for the Treaty of VersaillesB. The Weimar Republic had only one political partyC. The Weimar Republic passed laws that discriminated against Jews and CatholicsD.
The Weimar Republic was not democratic
The Nazis indoctrinated young people by?A. encouraging marriages as quickly as possibleB. giving them the best health care availableC. sending them to SwitzerlandD.
creating the “Hitler Youth”
What event did the Nazis use to try to justify Kristallnacht?A. a thunderstorm in Berlin gave the Gestapo the perfect chance to terrorize peopleB. a young Jew shot and wounded a German diplomat in Paris in retaliation for the treatment of his parentsC. the Catholics observance of the Christmas holiday made many Nazis angryD. a dozen countries in Eastern Europe began to move from democratic to authoritarian rule
How were German women treated by the Nazi regime?A. they were placed in high ranking jobsB.
they were offered scholarships to the universitiesC. they were dismissed from upper level jobsD. they were despised as much as the Jews
Why did Nazis condemn jazz?A. Jazz reminded them of Brecht’s Threepenny OperaB.
Jazz had African American rootsC. Nazis were only allowed to listen to music with a marching beatD. They were fond of American culture
Which of the following writers used stream of consciousness to explore hidden thoughts in people?A. T.S. EliotB. Virginia WoolfC.
Ernest HemingwayD. Erich Maria Remarque
Who was the first woman to serve in the British Parliament?A. Virginia WoolfB. Miriam FergusonC.
Nancy AstorD. Margherita G. Sarfatti
After the war, which nation emerged as the world’s leading economic power?A. GermanyB. GermanyC. the United StatesD.
What was the goal of the militant Irish nationalists who participated in the Easter Rising?A. to impose socialist policies on the governmentB. to gain independence for IrelandC. to gain suffrage for all Irish citizensD.
to regain land that was currently held by Britain
Which of the following statements about Britain’s postwar policy is true?A. British leaders wanted to relax the harsh treatment of GermanyB. British leaders promised to provide unlimited military assistance to FranceC. Britain had plans to acquire large areas of the Soviet UnionD. Britain tripled the amount of money that it spent on its military
Which of the following helped fascist leaders gain power in Eastern Europe?A. distrust of totalitarianismB.
rapid industrializationC. large amounts of capitalD. widespread poverty
Who built the first totalitarian state?A. Victor Emmanuel IIIB.
Adolf HitlerC. Benito MussoliniD. Joseph Pilsudski
What event showed the weakness of the League of Nations after World War I?A. the great powers pursuit of disarmamentB. the condemnation of Japan’s invasion of Manchuria with no following military actionC.
the admission of the Soviet Union to the LeagueD. the disputes between France and Britain over how much to enforce the Versailles Treaty
How did the U.S. lose its footing as an affluent country with a stable economy?A. strikers threw the economy off balanceB. other countries began to export more than they imported from the U.S.C.
France began to dominate in manufacturing and tradeD. the Great Depression happened
What created more problems for Americans as the New Deal was being put into effect?A. a natural disaster hit several central statesB. the technologies that had sustained America in the 20s began to lose their importanceC.
Franlin D. Roosevelt lost the next electionD. the US entered World War II
When Mussolini pledged to turn the Mediterranean into a “Roman lake” once again, he was alluding to what?A. the meaning of his nameB. the symbol of the Fascist partyC. the revival of Rome’s greatnessD. the Black Shirts’ violence and ability to muzzle the press
How did Mussolini view women?A.
important as officials to guide the stateB. necessary to higher education as the country transitioned from post WWI difficultiesC. important as childbearersD. necessary to the Italian workforce
Why did newspapers in Britain, France, and North America initially applaud Mussolini’s government?A. Mussolini’s government showed great discipline and orderB.
the restriction of Italians’ individual rights made them feel more secureC. the drive for foreign conquest was not unfamiliar to these countriesD. Mussolini’s government defeated the communists
Fascists are ideologically most closely allied with?A. MarxistsB.
socialistsC. nationalistsD. communists
By preserving Lenin’s body, what did Stalin hope to convey to the people?A. Stalin’s belief in the afterlifeB. that Stalin would carry on the goals of the revolutionC. burial grounds were no longer necessary for Russians in the 20th centuryD. that Stalin had the technology available to preserve the great leader
Stalin’s proposals to build heavy industry, improve transportation, and increase farm output were called?A. terror tacticsB.
socialist realismC. the great purgesD. five-year plans
Why did conservative politicians support Hitler?A. Hitler had led the communistsB. they believed Hitler’s election would soon destroy himC. they loved everything Hitler stood forD.
they thought Hitler could be controlled
How was Hitler similar to Stalin?A. Hitler took land from German farmersB. Hitler was a communistC. Hitler came to power on the heels of another very popular leaderD.
Hitler purged members of his own party
What did Hitler do while he was imprisoned for the failed attempt to seize power in Munich?A. Hitler became a ChristianB. Hitler planned the invasion of FranceC. Hitler wrote Mein KampfD. Hitler organized a network of Gestapo spies
The Nazis preferred music that glorified the old German myths, by composers such as?A.
MahlerB. WagnerC. SchoenbergD. Chopin