The lord’s demesne on a medieval manor consisted of the common lands of the estate where the peasants and serfs had the right to graze their own domestic animals, hunt wild game, and gather wood and other natural items.
The church figure who tried to reconcile faith with reason in his Summa Theologica was
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Which of the following statements about marriage best captures the realities for Roman women by the first century B.C.E.?
they remained legally the property of their fathers
led military commands in Spain and especially Gaul that enhanced his popularity
The first fully Gothic church was the abbey church of Saint-Denis outside of Paris, under the leadership of Abbot Suger in the mid-twelfth century.
had skylines dominated by the towers of churches, castles, and town halls.
By the later Republic, Roman slaves
often worked on the Roman Latifundia
Marcus Aurelius’ cruel son, who was strangled by his wrestling partner in 192 C.E.
were a wealthy and ambitious class of Romans who appeared in the late Republic.
Among Augustus’s most important actions in the area of Roman religion was his
creation of an imperial cult
Climatic patterns improved around 700 after several centuries of colder and wetter conditions.
In the second century, the Pantheon was built, which was one of Rome’s greatest buildings, a temple to all the gods.
The holy man who created the first community of monks in Egypt and laid the foundations for the monastic movement was
Peter Abelard’s most famous work was
Sic et Non (Yes and No)
The high number of fights and accidents described in medieval court record may plausibly be attributed to
the high consumption of alcohol
Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 is known as the
The coronation of Charlemagne in 800 as emperor of the Romans
symbolized the fusion of Roman, Germanic, and Christian cultures.
According to Cassiodorus, the trivium includes which of the following subjects?
grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic or logic
Which of the following statements was not true of Roman society in the Early Empire:
Slaves were treated more harshly as their numbers increased.
The early values of Christianity, as exemplified in Jesus’ “sermon on the mount,”
emphasized devotion to the values of humility, charity, and true brotherly love.
The late third century emperor who reconquered and reestablished order in the east and along the Danube and who was known as the “restorer of the world” was
The Treaty of Verdun in 843
divided the Carolingian empire.
The Carolingian scholar Alcuin is best noted for
helping to lay the foundation for medieval education.
The eighth-century controversy that set the Latin and Greek Orthodox Christians apart was over
iconoclasm, or the destruction of icons.
The college of augurs existed to
interpret auspices?signs sent to humans by the gods.
Hadrian built a defensive wall in which Roman territory?
At the Battle of Cannae the Romans
suffered a devastating defeat by Hannibal.
Which one of the following mystery cults had a great following, especially among the urban poor
The head of the Roman religious observances was
the pontifex maximus
The title “vicars of Christ” has traditionally been given to the
Bishops of Rome.
When Augustus died, who chose his successor?
Charlemagne’s most disappointing military campaign came against the
The Swedish Vikings tended to concentrate on conquests and trade in
What was the significance of Scipio Africanus in the Second Punic War?
He expelled the Carthaginians from Spain and later won the decisive Battle of Zama.
An early event in the Struggle of the Orders occurred in 445 B.C.
E., when the Canuleian law allowed patricians and plebeians to intermarry.
As a result of the First Punic War
the Carthaginians were forced to withdraw from Sicily and pay an indemnity to Rome.
One of the famous jurists of the Early Empire responsible for completing the basic natural rights principles vital to the Western world was
The Struggle of the Orders
was a peaceful struggle which resulted in political compromise.
The first university in northern Europe was
All of the following occurred during the reigns of the five “good emperors” except for
the halting of imperial bureaucratic growth.
Guilds were organizations of
artisans who directed almost every aspect of the production process of certain trades.
Which of the following is not true of the centuriate assembly?
it rivaled the roman senate for power
Romanization in the Roman Empire
varied widely in different areas of the empire in terms of its extent and speed.
All of the following were results of the Roman civil wars of 43-30 B.C.E. except the
Second Triumvirate’s defeat ofPompey at the Battle of Actium
Merchant cities in northern Europe, frequently ending in “-burg” or “-borough”, grew up in the 1100s around
the castles of noblemen
were originally a single people in central europe
Combative tournaments involving knights
were considered by knights to be excellent and necessary training for warfare.
The Edict of Milan
was Constantine’s document officially tolerating the existence of Christianity.
The economic structure of the Early Middle Ages
was underdeveloped and predominantly agricultural
In Germanic society wergeld
developed as an alternative to acts of revenge for injury.
The Senate granted Octavian the titles Augustus and imperator (emperor), but he preferred to be addressed as
The staple food in the Carolingian diet was
Gothic cathedrals seem to soar upward as light and airy constructions due to all of the following innovations except
the addition of a transept.
Optimates in the late Roman Republic wanted to maintain the privileges of the
By the thirteenth century, the increased agricultural production reduced the price of food in spite of increased urban demand.
By the end of the fifth century in the West
the Romans still controlled the economic resources.
The Council of Nicaea in 325
defined Christ as being “of the same substance” as God.
In Roman household cults, Janus was
the spirit of the doorway
In the Middle Ages, monastic hospitality to travelers was
a sacred duty
The dramatic increases in European population between 1000 and 1300
were primarily due to an increased birth rate outstripping high medieval mortality rates.
Augustus added more territory to the Roman Empire than any other single Roman in its history.
The Frankish palace official, Charles Martel, successfully defeated which of the following near Poitiers in 732?
The most significant non-Latin influence upon early Rome came from the Etruscans.
During the Early Empire (14-180 C.E.
), the Roman army
was increased to 400,000 men.
On the whole, medieval cities tended to be
relatively undemocratic; the wealthy usually ruled and voted in civic elections.
By the twelfth century, divorce among nobles was
not possible except through official recognition that a marriage had never been valid.
The Roman senator who led the movement for the complete destruction of Carthage was
Muslim societies abide by a strict code of law, much of it derived from the holy book Qur’an, and regulating all aspects of Muslim life. This law code is called
The prolific “silver age” writer Seneca
composed philosophical letters on the theme of Stoicism.
After the death of Theodoric, the Ostrogothic kingdom
was defeated by the Byzantines, reducing Rome as a center of Mediterranean culture
By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar showed that he
was willing to disobey the direct orders of the Senate.
Muslims regard Muhammad as a Prophet but not as divine.
Concerning social classes during early Roman Empire,
the power of the equestrian class was expanded.
In northern Europe, the center of trade and manufacturing in the Middle Ages was Flanders, famous for its production of high-quality woolen cloth.
the power to command Roman citizens.
In feudal Europe, a manor was
an agricultural estate owned by a lord and worked by peasants.
Which one of the following innovations enabled Romans to erect giant amphitheaters, public baths, and high-rise tenement buildings?
The colonies of veterans established by Augustus throughout the empire
proved especially valuable in Romanizing the provinces.
All of the following is true of the ideal of civilized behavior known as chivalry except
chivalry was developed without the influence of the church.
The founder of the Frankish kingdom and the first royal Frankish defender of the Catholic faith was
Muhammad was born in
Scientific medicine entered the Roman world at
the end of the third century B.C.E.
Which of the following was not a consequence of the higher food prices caused by growing demand for agricultural produce in towns and cities?
Almost all peasants gained complete economic independence from their lords.
An independent Umayyad dynasty survived in Spain until 1453.
The missi dominici were officials that Charlemagne used to
ensure his counts were following his wishes
Which of the following statements was true of Augustan society?
legislation was passed concerning the corruption of morals
In their struggle with the patricians, Roman plebeians employed which of the following tactics:
a and b
The emperor who said, “Live in harmony, make the soldiers rich, and don’t give a damn for anything else” was
Justinian’s military conquests under the great general Belisarius
were short lived
The Roman praetorian guards were
elite troops given the task of protecting the emperor.
The best example of Hiberno-Saxon art is
teh book of kells
The immediate cause of the First Punic War was
Rome sending an army to Sicily
The medieval theological debate between the scholastic realists and nominalists
centered around the problem of universals and the nature of reality.
The Petrine Doctrine
was the belief that the bishops of Rome held a preeminent position in the church.
Which of the following argued that women should be subservient to men?
Paul of Tarsus.
The greatest historian of the “silver age” of Latin literature was
The first university to be founded in Europe appeared in
In the year 532, Justinian almost fled the capital because of
the Nika riots.
In the Early Middle Ages, the cultivation of new land was hard for all of the following reasons except
climatic changes, including colder temperatures, shortened growing seasons.
After the death of Louis the Pious
an incessant struggle between Louis the German, Charles the Bald, and their heirs over disputed territories weakened the Carolingian word.
Rome was established in the first millennium B.C.E. on the
plain of Latium.
Among Otto I’s more successful actions that clearly benefited the kingship of Germany was
defeat of the Magyars at the battle of Lechfeld in 955 and Christianization of eastern Europe.
Sulla’s legacy and importance was that he
employed his personal army in political disputes, paving the way toward Roman civil war.
The “terrible third century” was made terrible by all of the following except
ignorance of military affairs by the Severan rulers.
Carolingian society was marked by all of the following except
a total disinterest in bodily cleanliness.
Which of the following brought peasants into contact with the village church?
all of the above
Troubadour poetry was chiefly concerned with
the courtly love of nobles, knights, and ladies.
At the synod of Whitby in 664, the English church accepted the Irish practices rather than the Roman.
were government-backed spectacles used to content the masses.
Because of concerns of security and fear of the possible weakening of traditional Roman values, Roman troops were always kept in isolation and away from the local communities where they were stationed.
The famous Hagia Sophia is recognizable by
a large dome, symbolizing the sphere of heaven.
In the early Middle Ages,
a small population subsisted on a limited agricultural economy.
One of the most famous representatives of the enforced subordination and assumed inferiority of women in the Middle Ages was Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was born into the aristocracy but forced to spend her entire adult life in a rural nunnery.
The Song of Roland is one of the finest examples of
the medieval chanson de geste
The capital of the Abbasid caliphate during the high point of Islamic culture was the city of
The windmill and the watermill were the most important methods for the harnessing of power before the invention of the coal-driven steam engine of the eighteenth century.
Christianity spread very slowly and remained a minority religion in the Roman Empire by the end of the first century C.E.
The “golden age” historian Livy is well known for his
the perceiving history in terms of sharp moral lessons
were originally from western Asia
Romans did not readily accept any Greek philosophy except that of
Stoicism, because of its emphasis on virtue and duty
Which of the following statements were true of trade during the Early Middle Ages?
During the early centuries of the Middle Ages, trade drastically declined By the ninth century, luxury goods were brought in from the Byzantine Empire.
The paterfamilias in Roman society was
the male head of the family
After Constantine’s death, the Roman Empire began to divide into western and eastern parts and by the end of the fourth century had become virtually two independent states.
Livy was best known in the Augustan Age for his
History of ROme in 142 books
Much of the surplus resources of medieval urban society went into
the construction of castles and churches reflecting its basic preoccupations warfare and God
Cities had survived in a more visible fashion in Europe north of the Alps than in the Mediterranean world.
Which of the following trends developed during the reigns of the Julio-Claudian emperors?
Emperors took more and more actual ruling power away from the old Senate.
Charlemagne’s Carolingian Renaissance was characterized by
looking to Italy for inspiration and keeping the Classical heritage alive.
In defeating the Greek city-states in southern Italy, Rome
had to fight the soldiers of King Pyrrhus, sent against them by the Greeks.
The successors to Muhammad’s leadership of the Muslims were known as
The word “vernacular” means
Initially, the greatest effect of the church on Frankish marriage
was to limit sexual license and concubinage.
The Roman Dictator
was a temporary executive during the period of the Republic.exercised unlimited power for a period of usually six months.
After Rome crushed the Latin states in the fourth century B.C.E., it waged a 50-year struggle against
The first of the Flavian emperors was
Students in medieval universities
often engaged in quarrels with one another and in confrontations with townspeople.
All of the following were consequences of the revival of trade except
the final abandonment of old Roman cities.
Frankish marriage customs
placed strong sanctions on adulterous women.
The expansion of the Carolingian Empire under Charlemagne
was most successful against the German tribes to the east.
In the Early Middle Ages, the Catholic Church condemned infanticide as immoral and a sin, and because of the powerful position of the church in medieval society, the practice of the killing of infants disappeared.
was an economic system based upon landed estates.
Which of the following statements about the Byzantine emperor is not accurate?
The emperor mimicked Christ-like humility and allowed his subjects to approach him as equals.
The poet Juvenal commented that the only thing that most Romans wanted was bread and circuses.
Medieval cities defined citizenship broadly and invited all residents to participate in elections.
Augustine’s Confessions was written as
an account of his own miraculous personal conversion.
The percentage of European land cultivated in the Early Middle Ages is estimated at
less than 10 percent
The Second Punic War saw Carthage
carry a land war to ROme by crossing the Alps
The main achievement of the Hortensian law in Roman constitutional history was its
ruling that all plebiscita passed by the plebeian assembly had the force of law and were binding even upon the patricians.
The Germans believed that the ordeal
could reveal the truth by showing which party God favored in a dispute.
The pope who supposedly caused Attila and the Huns to turn away from Rome was
The Carolingian monks
preserved the works of Classical Latin authors through their copying of manuscripts.
Peter Abelard was castrated because of his book Sic et Non.
The Art of Love
caused great displeasure to Augustus and led to Ovid’s eventual exile.
Which of the following statements about the Roman Senate under Augustus is accurate?
Augustus retained the Senate as the chief deliberative body of the Roman state.
The best known of the Abbasid caliphs was
Harun al Rashid
Which of the following statements best describes the governing of Roman provinces under Augustus?
Efficient, with legates cooperating with the local elites.
Constantine declared toleration for Christians but did not make Christianity the official Roman religion.
The last great persecution of Christians was ordered by
The dominant style of the church architecture in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was
The withdrawal of Roman armies from Britain enabled
Angles and Saxons, Germanic tribes from Denmark and Germany, to invade and to establish new kingdoms on the isle.
Marriages among the aristocracy of the High Middle Ages
were expected to establish political alliances between families and increase their wealth
Rome set a precedent for treating its vanquished foes after forming the Roman Confederation by
offering its most favored allies full Roman citizenship, thus giving them a stake in successful Roman expansion.
For the Romans, Italy’s geography
made Rome a natural crossroads and an area easy to defend.
Irish monasticism from the sixth through eighth centuries tended to be highly
Among the upper classes of the Early Empire
women had considerable freedom and independence.
The area that assumed a leading role in the revival of trade in the Middle Ages was
Among the dangerous military innovations of Marius threatening the Republic was his
Recruitment of destitute volunteers who swore an oath of allegiance only to him.
Which of the following statements best applies to Roman education
The wealthy classes wanted training in Greek and mastery of rhetoric, or persuasive public speaking, for their children.
Which of the following is not a similarity between Christianity and Islam?
Both Muhammad and Jesus considered themselves to be divine.
Identify the correct relationship between “golden age” author and his major work:
Ovid?The Art of Love
The largest area of Roman innovation in architecture was
the use of concrete on a massive scale.
The Slavic people of the Rus were best known for
founding the state that became known as Russia.
The premier scholar in Charlemagne’s court was Alcuin of York.
Under feudalism of the Early Middle Ages
the major obligation of a vassal to his lord was to provide military service.
The main part of the medieval castle was called the
The First Triumvirate was a political alliance between Crassus, Julius Caesar, and
The primary preoccupation of scholasticism was
the reconciliation of faith with reason.