Christine de Pizan is best known for her:A: love affair with HannibalB: defense of the poorC: written defense of womenD: long hair
C: written defense of women
Christian Humanists believed that:A: the liberal studies enabled individuals to reach their potentialB: by studying biology, one could assure one’s salvationC: God did not intend man to know more than the BibleD: society should return to simpler ways
A: the liberal studies enabled individuals to reach their potential
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The peace of Augsburg formally:A: made Martin Luther patron saint of the Holy Roman EmpireB: accepted the division of Christianity in GermanyC: established the doctrine of LutheranismD: ended the war between France and Morocco
B: accepted the division of Christianity in Germany
Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales is an important work because:A: Chaucer’s use of English vernacular was important to making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English language.B: it was the first work in French to be published in England and France, opening up to England’s culture and languagec.
it was the first collection of short stories by a single author to be publishedd. his poignant portrayal of the English lower class evoked a change in English society
A: use of English vernacular was important to making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English language
High Renaissance in Italy is associated with which three artists?a. Leonardo da Vinci, Jan van Eyck, and Albrecht Durerb. Raphael, Donatello, and Filippo Brunelleschic. Masaccio, Donatello, and Filippo Brunelleschid.
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
d. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
The publication of Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Thesesa. was immediately seen as a threat by local businesses.b.
attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences.c. was largely ignored until decades after Luther’s death.d.
became the central text for Anglicanism
b. attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences.
Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of Renaissance Italy’s social ideal because he wasa. a politician, and politicians were considered the pinnacle b. wealthy and greatly improved his family’s status in societyc. a romantic poet who wrote insightful political treatises. d.
a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician
d. a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician
The first Protestant faith wasa. Calvinism b. Zoroastrianism c. Christian humanism d. Lutheranism
Who founded the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits?a.
Pope Paul III b. the Council of Trent c. Ignatius of Loyola d.
the Act of Supremacy
b. the Council of Trent
The best known of the all Christian humanists wasa. Desiderius Erasmus b. Filippo Brunelleschi c. Martin Luther d. Albracht Durer
conquered Milan after the death of the last Visconti ruler
established the Church of England in 1534, married a lot
his masterpiece in the Italian vernacular was the Divine Comedy
Flemish painter who was among the first to use oil paint
Jan van Eyck
German artist of the famous Adoration of the Magi
the father of Italian Renaissance humanism
published the Institutes of the Christian Religion
wrote the influential political book The Prince
began the Protestant Reformation
introduced Protestant reforms in Zurich
based on the study of the literary works of ancient Greece and Rome
major goal was the reform of the Catholic Church
made Martin Luther an outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire
Edict of Worms
belief that God determined in advance who would be saved and damned
a release from all or part of the punishment for sin
large agricultural estates
economic theory saying prosperity depends on amount of gold & silver
Spanish conquerors of the Americas
settlement in a new territory linked to a parent country by trade
difference in value between imports and exports over time
balance of trade
remembered as the first person to sail around the world
in October 1492, reached the Americas, where he explored Cuba’s coast
the pattern of trade connecting Europe with the Americas
went around the Cape of Good Hope and across the Indian Ocean to India
Vasco da Gama
explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England
European expansion was driven by all of the following EXCEPTa. wealth and trade. b. fear of African empires. c. ambition.
d. religious zeal.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (the Line of Demarcation) in 1494 gave Spain control of almost all ofa. Africa. b. Asia. c. Europe. d. the Americas.
d. the Americas.
38. All of the following countries had a controlling interest in the Americas EXCEPTa. England. b. Brazil. c.
Holland. d. France.
39. Which of the following came from the Old World?a. Horses.
b. Tomatoes. c. Chocolate.
40.King Alfonso was the greatest king of a. Brazil.
b. K(C)ongo c. Benin. d. Ibo.
Philip II of Spain was known as thea.
“Huguenot King.” b. “Most Catholic King.” c. “King of the World.” d. “Papal King.”
“Most Catholic King.”
Protestants in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas werea. Puritans. b. Royalists. c.
Roundheads. d. Cavaliers.
The work of William Shakespeare is perhaps the best example ofa. Elizabethan literature.b. baroque literature. c. Gothic literature. d.
a. Elizabethan literature.
The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, anda. gave Huguenots right to worship and all political privileges.
b. inflamed tensions between the Catholics and the Spanish.c. declared all Huguenots to be enemies of the state. d. served only to appease the pope.
a. gave Huguenots right to worship and all political privileges.
James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which isa. the belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the throne, and therefore was faultless.b. the concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by the laws of the Church.c.
the theory that kings alone could know the mind of God and are responsible only to God.d. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.
d. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.
Absolutism isa. the practice by monarchs of undergoing daily absolution.
b. the belief that all citizens must conform to one religion.c.
the belief that baptism absolves all past and future sins. d. a system of government in which a ruler holds total power.
d. a system of government in which a ruler holds total power.
Known for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions is the style of painting known asa. gauche. b. Realism. c. baroque. d. Mannerism.
Seven percent of the total French population (but 40 to 50 percent of the nobility) werea.
Catholics. b. Huguenots. c. Canadians. d. Jesuits.
Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy bya. promising cake to the masses. b. convincing the English to have a strong monarch.c. slowly eroding the power of the nobility. d.
taking away Huguenots’ rights and executing conspirators.
d. taking away Huguenots’ rights and executing conspirators.
Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome is an example of the work ofa. Artemesia Gentileschi. b. Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
c. El Greco. d. Bocelli.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
a fleet of warships
the Russian word for Caesar
ascended the throne (of England) in 1558; intelligent, careful and self-confident, virgin
a military genius; purged parliament of anyone who opposed him
King of France, long regarded as the best example of absolutism in the seventeenth century
“the Terrible,” in the sixteenth century, became the first ruler to take the title of czar
from the Romanov family; made Russia a great power; westernized Russia
Peter the Great
wrote perhaps 1,500 witty, charming, action-packed, and realistic plays (to please)
Lope de Vega
wrote Leviathan, a work on political thought which supported absolute power
the prince of Orange and leader of the United Provinces of the (Dutch) Netherlands
William the Silent
son of James I who tried to impose more ritual on the Church of England; executed
a devout Catholic, made religion once more a cause of conflict in England; King of Scotland
known as the Great Elector; built a large and efficient standing army for the Prussian state
in 1613, the new czar chosen by the national assembly, began the Romanov dynasty
he was mannerism’s high point; using elongated and contorted figures
author of the novel Don Quixote, hailed as one of the greatest literary works of all time
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Two Treatises of Government, which supported constitutional government
mathematician who developed the idea of planets moving in ellipses
argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa, or blank mind
an Anglican minister who founded Methodism, a new religious movement
a renowned organist as well as composer, who spent his entire life in Germany
Johann Sebastian Bach
first European to (make regular observations of the heavens) study stars using a telescope
developed a philosophy based on the idea “I think, therefore I am.”
greatest figure of the Enlightenment; well known for his criticism of Christianity
argued that, because women have reason, then they are entitled to the same rights as men
educated and cultured monarch who kept a strict watch over the Prussian bureaucracy
Frederick the Great
spent most of his adult life as musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes
Franz Joseph Haydn
Isaac Newton’s universal law of gravitationa. was denounced by the Anglican Church as the devil’s work. b.
refuted Galileo Galilei’s theory of universal movement.c. showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe.
d. was laughed at by Galileo, Kepler, and Copernicus.
c. showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe.
John Locke’s ideas suggest that people werea. born either good or evil. b. inherently self-centered.
c. naturally inclined to be stupid d. molded by experience.
molded by experience.
In Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s concept of a social contract,a. an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. b. punishments are not exercises in brutality.c. the government should not interfere in economic matters.
d. women should be granted equal rights.
a. an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
Who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism?a. Chaucer b. Francis Bacon c. Rene Descartes d. Robert Boyle
The first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe wasa.
Ptolemy. b. Nicholas Copernicus.
c. Johannes Kepler. d. Martin Luther.
b. Nicholas Copernicus.
Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, believed scientists shoulda. use inductive reasoning.
b. rely solely on the Bible. c. use chance to study nature. d. leave nature alone
use inductive reasoning.
To Voltaire and many other philosophes, the universe wasa. a divine creation. b. unknowable at all. c.
constructed like a flower. d. like a clock.
d. like a clock.
The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni, three of the world’s greatest operas, were composed bya. Franz Joseph Hayden. b. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. c. Johann Sebastian Bach. d. George Frederick Handel
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
According to the Ptolemaic system, thea. moon is the center of the universe. b.
Earth revolves around the moon.c. universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth at center. d. Earth and moon revolve around Saturn, the sun god.
c. universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth at center.
Montesquieu’s most lasting contribution to political thought was hisa.
system of checks and balances through separation of powers. b. identification of the natural laws that govern society.c. theory that government should interfere with religious matters. d. idea that punishments should be brutal to be effective.
system of checks and balances through separation of powers.
states, in mathematical terms, that every object is attracted to every other object by a force
law of gravitation
rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers
sun-centered conception of the universe
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
idea that the state should not interrupt the economy; let (people) do (what they want)”
France’s chief tax
radical political group
a sudden overthrow of the government
prominent critic of Napoleon’s rule
Germaine de Stael
demanded equal political rights for women from the new French National Assembly
Olympe de Gouges
The term sans-culottes, meaning “without breeches,” implied that the members of this political group werea. women, because they wore skirts.
b. very poor and could not afford pants.c. pacifists who did not use guns. d. ordinary patriots without fine clothes.
d. ordinary patriots without fine clothes.
In his final battle, Napoleon was defeated bya. the bitter Russian winter. b. a French and Swiss army. c. the Duke of Wellington. d. the British navy.
c. the Duke of Wellington.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimeda. equal rights for all men, but no political rights for women.
b. and end to the monarchy and the National Assembly.c. equal rights for all citizens, including equal rights for women. d. an end to the National police force.
a. equal rights for all men, but no political rights for women.
The brutal head of the Committee of Public Safety wasa.
Maximilien Robespierre. b. Jean-Paul Marat. c. Jean Valjean. d. Victor Hugo
The French National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath, which wasa. a promise to destroy all of the nation’s tennis bracelets.b. a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution.c.
an oath of loyalty to Jean Valjean, an outspoken lawyer that called for doing away with the relics of feudalism.d. a promise not to rest until all members of the clergy were tried and executed.
b. a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution.
The Committee of Public Safety was given broad powers toa.
drain all the canals. b. defend France from threats. c. protect the Paris Commune. d. restore order to Brussels.
b. defend France from threats.
To establish his consulate, Napoleon’s coup d’etat overthrew thea. Directory. b. city mayor. c. British government.
d. Legislative Assembly.
What were the two major reasons that Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed?a. Napoleon’s greed and laziness within his bureaucracy b. the survival of Britain and the force of nationalismc. the resentment of the clergy and the plotting of the accountants d. France’s weak economy and the drain of Napoleon’s wars
the survival of Britain and the force of nationalism
Which of France’s estates was NOT exempt from the taille?a. the First Estate (clergy) b. the Second Estate (nobility) c. the Third Estate (commoners) d. the Fourth Estate (elite)
the Second Estate (nobility)
The most important of the seven legal codes established by Napoleon wasa. the Religious Code b. the Food Code c. the Merchant Code d. the Civil Code
d. the Civil Code
built the first paddle-wheel steamboat, the Clermont
appointed prime minister of Prussia and dominated all of northern Germany
Otto von Bismarck
reigned from 1837 to 1901, the longest in English history
the bridge between the classical and romantic periods in music
Ludwig von Beethoven
a dedicated Italian patriot who raised an army called Red Shirts
British cotton manufacturer, utopian socialist, creator of New Harmony, Indiana
attempted reforms in Russia (i.e.
a new land system) but assassinated in 1881
Czar Alexander II
published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
emperor (i.e. William I of the Second German Empire)
laws that allowed large landowners to fence off common lands
meeting of the great powers of Europe to arrange a final peace after Napoleon’s defeat
Congress of Vienna
an economic system based on industrial production
political philosophy based on tradition and social stability
a written document that guaranteed freedoms
Bill of Rights
38 independent states recognized in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
The belief that people should be as free as possible from government restraints isa. Nationalism. b.
Monoculturalism. c. Industrial capitalism. d. Liberalism.
According to Darwin, what was central to organic evolution?a.
natural selection. b. genetic engineering. c.
natural production. d. organic selection
a. natural selection.
Who developed a steam engine that could drive machinery?a.
James Hargreaves b. Edmund Wilson c. James Watt d. Henry Cort
c. James Watt
According to the principle of intervention, the great powers of Europe had the right toa.
borrow food from one another in times of economic crisis within their countries.b. send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power.
c. take one another’s territories with asking.d. have representatives with voting privileges in one another’s government
b. send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power.
Who proposed the germ theory of disease?a. Farhid Molotof b.
Michael Faraday c. Louis Pasteur d. Charles Darwin
c. Louis Pasteur
Prince Klemens von Metternich’s claim that he was guided by the principle of legitimacy meanta.
territories would only be returned to those who had a legitimate claim to them.b. lawful monarchs from the royal families that had ruled before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power.
c. he was the legitimate and lawful heir to the throne of Denmark.d.
the old tensions that had existed prior to Napoleon would resurface.
a. territories would only be returned to those who had a legitimate claim to them.
What emphasized feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing?a. Rationalism b. Romanticism c. Conservatism d.
The British novelist Charles Dickens became very successful with hisa. romantic novels focusing on Britain’s pastoral life. b. Gothic novels of man’s attempt to dominate nature.c.
secular novels portraying criminals who were evil. d. realistic novels focusing on Britain’s lower/middle classes.
d. realistic novels focusing on Britain’s lower/middle classes.
The pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution gave rise toa.
the Iron Workers’ Revolt of 1886. b. the organization of charitable groups.c. socialism (society owns and controls means of production) d. a cry for rights for animals that worked in coal mines.
a. the Iron Workers’ Revolt of 1886.
What was a literary and visual arts movement that rejected romanticism?a. Evolutionism b. Nationalism c. Secularism d.
created the light bulb in the U.S. which opened homes and cities to electric lights
appalled at the horrible conditions in industrial factories, wrote The Communist Manifesto
transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle-class during the U.
S. Civil War
emperor of Germany from 1888 to 1918, dedicated to enhancing German power
believed that the absolute power of the czars should be preserved in Russia
French scientist who discovered radiation that apparently came from within the atom itself
a doctor from Vienna who proposed theories about the nature of the human mind
created a new style, cubism, using geometric designs to recreate reality in viewer’s mind
invented the telephone in 1876 which began a revolution in communications
Alexander Graham Bell
British nurse whose efforts during the Crimean War transformed nursing
worked as chancellor (prime minister) to keep Germany from becoming a democracy
Otto von Bismarck
emperor of Austria-Hungary who largely ignored the constitutional parliamentary system
tried to strengthen power of the monarchy to keep the Hawaiian islands under her people’s control
pioneered building of American homes with long geometric lines and overhanging roofs
Frank Lloyd Wright
an impressionist painter who sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and sky
Who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and the Sick in Hamburg, Germany?a. Florence Nightingale b. Amelia Earhart c. Emmeline Pankhurst d. Amalie Sieveking
d. Amalie Sieveking
Who sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901?a. Alexander Graham Bell b.
Thomas Edison c. Guglielmo Marconi d. Joseph Swan
c. Guglielmo Marconi
Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters founded thea. Women’s Social and Political Union. b. Red Cross. c.
Women’s Christian Association. d. Society for Women
Women’s Social and Political Union.
According to the special theory of relativity’s new view of the universe by Albert Einstein, a German-born scientist,a. if all material things disappear, only other stuff would remain. b. only space and time exist independently of experience.c. time and space are not absolute but are relative to the observer.
d. matter and energy are two separate, distinct monads
c. time and space are not absolute but are relative to the observer.
Whose discovery of radium changed the world’s view of the atom?a. Albert Einstein b.
Marie Curie c. Friedrich von Bernhardi d. Houston Chamberlain
b. Marie Curie
promoted Western learning and maintained friendly relations with major European powers
spent 30 years exploring unchartered regions of Central Africa (interior of the continent)
in 1876 was bestowed the title of Empress of India; reign lasted 63 years and 7 months
a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
allowed local rulers to maintain positions of authority
king of Thailand from 1851-1868, known to theatergoers as the king in The King and I
Commodore of United States naval forces which defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
a young journalist (famous words, “Dr.
Livingstone, I presume.”) who explored the Congo
replacement of local rulers with officials from the mother country